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What is Mental Illness? Module One. What is Mental Illness? Not just highs & lows in feelings Disease of the mind Disorder of thought, mood, perception,

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Presentation on theme: "What is Mental Illness? Module One. What is Mental Illness? Not just highs & lows in feelings Disease of the mind Disorder of thought, mood, perception,"— Presentation transcript:

1 What is Mental Illness? Module One

2 What is Mental Illness? Not just highs & lows in feelings Disease of the mind Disorder of thought, mood, perception, orientation and memory

3 Classifications - DSM-IV 1. Disorders of Childhood or Adolescence 2. Dementia & Cognitive Disorders 3. Disorders Due to a Medical Condition 4. Substance-Related Disorders 5. Schizophrenia & Other Psychotic Disorders 6. Mood Disorders 7. Anxiety Disorders 8. Somatoform Disorders

4 Classifications (cont’d) 9. Factitious Disorders 10. Dissociative Disorders 11. Sexual & Gender Identity Disorders 12. Eating Disorders 13. Sleep Disorders 14. Impulse Control Disorders 15. Adjustment Disorders 16. Personality Disorders 17. Other

5 Anxiety Disorders Affect 1 in 10 people (Somers et al 2006) Chronic, overwhelming anxiety and fear Phobias, Panic Disorder, and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Symptoms: Body: heart palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, nausea, chest pain Thoughts: irrational fear/worry, fear of losing control or dying Treatment: Medication, therapy, and stress management

6 Panic Attack “For me, a panic attack is almost a violent experience. I feel disconnected from reality. I feel like I'm losing control in a very extreme way. My heart pounds really hard, I feel like I can't get my breath, and there's an overwhelming feeling that things are crashing in on me.” “In between attacks there is this dread and anxiety that it's going to happen again. I'm afraid to go back to places where I've had an attack. Unless I get help, there soon won't be anyplace where I can go and feel safe from panic.” (NIMH 2006)

7 Depression Affects 8 in 100 people Affects the body, mood and thoughts Symptoms last for weeks, months or years Symptoms include: Body: appetite changes, weight gain/loss, sleep disturbance and fatigue Mood: feeling sad, empty, hopeless, worthless, guilty or trapped Thoughts: difficulty concentrating/thinking, loss of pleasure in activities, thoughts of death/suicide Treatment: Medication, therapy, or stress management

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9 Reverend Isabella Ross - Depression “When I’m really ill, I hear what’s like a tape recorder in my head saying really horrible negative things: Your life isn’t worth anything. It would be better if you weren’t here any more. You’re destroying other people’s lives. You’re worthless. That’s what consumes me. I don’t have any ability to shut it off.”

10 Bipolar Affective Disorder Extreme, spontaneous, mood swings alternating between depression and mania. Mania: elated, euphoric mood, increased energy, rapid thoughts and speech, lack of inhibitions, grandiose beliefs. Treatment: Medication, therapy, and stress management Affects 1 in 100 people

11 Andrea Woodside – Bipolar Disorder “I wake up – maybe weeks, sometimes months later – I wonder if I’ll get a Visa bill informing me that I am the owner of four new dishwashers and $1,800 worth of shoes. All inhibitions, all sense of self-preservation, go out the window when I am manic.”

12 Schizophrenia Affects 1 in 100 people Symptoms include: Mind: delusions, hallucinations – auditory/visual, lack of insight into illness Thought: disorganized thought and/or speech, flat affect, reduced speech, low energy Treatment: Medication, therapy, and stress management

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14 Diane F. - Schizophrenia “During my second semester, I went on an out-of-town trip with my boyfriend. As we were driving back home, I started seeing animals leaping out in front of the car. A few weeks later, I was walking on campus and saw people in front of me suddenly disappear.”

15 Eating Disorders Affect 4 in 100 people Symptoms include: Severe and unhealthy reduction or increase in food intake Extreme concern about body shape or weight Anorexia: –Extreme weight loss –Seeing oneself as fat despite excessive thinness Bulimia: –Regular binge-eating followed by purging Treatment: Therapy, medication and if acute, hospitalization

16 What Causes Eating Disorders? Socio-cultural and psychological factors: Low self esteem Social pressures to be thin Use of food to cope with painful emotions Black and white thinking Over-controlling parents History of sexual abuse Biological factors: Genetic predisposition to eating disorders, depression and anxiety Personality style Deficiency or excess of certain brain chemicals

17 Prognosis Untreated Anorexia and Bulimia: Malnutrition and consequent body malfunctions, muscle atrophy, osteoporosis, heart attack, death Rate of deaths, 12 times the date rate due to all other causes for females years old Treatment: Better outcomes when diagnosed and treated early Many sufferers deny being ill and refuse treatment Families and friends support critical to successful treatment and recovery

18 Quick Facts 24% of boys and 17% of girls between the ages of 4 and 11 have one or more emotional or behavioural disorders Estimated economic burden of $14.4 billion puts mental health problems among the most costly conditions in Canada (Health Canada)

19 More Quick Facts Mental illness knows no boundaries. Anyone can develop a mental illness regardless of age, gender, economic background, geographical area or race. If you have a BRAIN…you can have a mental illness.


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