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RECONSTRUCTION. RECONSTRUCTION BEGINS  When the war ended, the Union had to deal with the defeated south.  Reconstruction, or the process of readmitting.

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Presentation on theme: "RECONSTRUCTION. RECONSTRUCTION BEGINS  When the war ended, the Union had to deal with the defeated south.  Reconstruction, or the process of readmitting."— Presentation transcript:

1 RECONSTRUCTION

2 RECONSTRUCTION BEGINS  When the war ended, the Union had to deal with the defeated south.  Reconstruction, or the process of readmitting the former Confederate states to the union, lasted from 1865-1877.  Damaged South  Cities, towns, and farms had been ruined. Many southerners faced starvation because of high food prices and widespread crop failures.  The money held by Confederate banks was worthless and many merchants went bankrupt because people were unable to pay their debts.

3 LINCOLN’S PLAN  Lincoln’s goal had always been to preserve the union. His goal now was to reunite the nation as quickly and painlessly as possible.  He called his plan the Ten Percent Plan.  It offered southerners amnesty, or official pardon for all illegal acts supporting the rebellion  Southerners had to do two things:  Swear an oath of loyalty to the U.S.  Agree that slavery was illegal  Once 10% of the voters agreed, the state could be readmitted to the Union

4 WADE-DAVIS BILL  Some leaders in Congress believed they should have the power to control southern states’ return to the union.  They thought the 10% plan did not go far enough.  Two senators, Benjamin Wade & Henry Davis had an alternative to Lincoln’s plan.  Wade-Davis Requirements:  The state had to ban slavery  A majority of adult males had to take an oath of loyalty.  Under this plan, only southerners who swore they had never supported the Confederacy were able to vote or hold office.  Lincoln refused to sign the plan because he believed his plan would restore order more quickly.

5 FREEDOM FOR AFRICAN-AMERICANS  On January 31, 1865 at the urging of Abraham Lincoln, Congress proposed the 13 th Amendment – made slavery illegal throughout the United States.  It took effect December 18, 1865.

6 FREEDOM FOR AFRICAN-AMERICANS  Once slaves were set free, many couples got married, freed people searched for relatives who had been sold, women began to work at home, and others adopted children.  Freed people began to take new last names and demanded the same economic and political rights as whites.  Freedmen’s Bureau  An agency created by Congress to provide relief for freed people and certain poor people in the south.  The bureau played an important role in establishing schools in the south.  Despite this, many southerners still believed that African Americans should not attend school.

7 A NEW PRESIDENT  April 14, 1865  Lincoln attended a play with his wife at Ford’s Theater in Washington, D.C.  During the play, John Wilkes Booth assassinated Lincoln.  Lincoln was rushed across the street to a boardinghouse but he died early the next morning.  Vice President Andrew Johnson was sworn into office.  Johnson said that former Confederate officials needed a Presidential pardon to receive amnesty. Ford’s Theater

8 NEW STATE GOVERNMENTS  Johnson had his own plan for readmitting states:  Temporary Governor for each state  State constitutions needed to be revised  Voters elected state and federal representatives  Had to declare secession illegal and ratify the 13 th amendment.  Congress disagreed as many of the reps were former Confederate leaders. The Union remained divided.

9 OPPOSITION TO JOHNSON  Black Codes – laws that were passed by southern states to limit the freedom of African Americans.  African Americans were required to sign work contracts.  Codes angered many Republicans who thought the south was returning to its old ways.  Radical Republicans – wanted the federal government to force change in the south.  Two Radicals:  Thaddeus Stevens & Charles Sumner  Both opposed Johnson

10 FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT  Congress proposed a new bill to allow the Freedmen’s Bureau to try those who violated African American’s rights.  Johnson Disagreed  Republicans responded by passing the Civil Rights Act of 1866 – Provided African Americans with the same legal rights as whites.  Johnson Vetoed!!! – Did not think African Americans should have the same rights.  Fearing the Act would be overturned, Republicans passed the 14 th Amendment:  Defined African Americans as citizens  Guaranteed equal protection  Must allow for due process  Banned Confederate officials from holding office  State laws subject to federal review  Congress had the power to pass any laws needed to enforce it

11 RECONSTRUCTION ACTS  After the election, Congress passed the Reconstruction Acts – Divided the South into five military districts  To be readmitted: Constitution had to support the 14 th amendments and African American men had to be given the right to vote.

12 1866 ELECTIONS  Main Issue: Civil rights for African Americans  Johnson traveled the country to speak against it. His trip was a disaster.  Riots broke out in Memphis and New Orleans killing nearly 40 people.  Outcome: Republicans gained a 2/3 majority making it possible to override a veto.

13 PRESIDENT ON TRIAL  Johnson opposed the Reconstruction Acts and Congress knew it.  Congress passed a law limiting the power of the President but he broke the law immediately.  As a result, the House voted to impeach him.  Impeach – bring charges of wrongdoing against a public official  Saved by one vote.

14 ELECTION OF 1868  Grant was nominated for the Republican ticket.  Shortly after he was nominated, 7 states were re-admitted.  African Americans in those states helped Grant win a narrow victory.  15 th Amendment – Gave African American men the right to vote

15 CARPETBAGGERS & SCALAWAGS  Carpetbaggers:  Northern-born republicans who moved south after the war and were accused of trying to profit off of the south.  Scalawag:  White southern Republicans, also called greedy. Southerners believed these people betrayed them.

16 AFRICAN AMERICAN LEADERS & THE KKK  African Americans = Largest group of voters in the south.  Hiriam Revels – became the first African American to serve in the U.S. Senate.  The KKK  Created by a group of white southerners in TN to oppose civil rights for African Americans. Biggest threat = suffrage.  Attacked and murdered African Americans, white Republicans, and public officials.  Congress passed laws to make it a crime to interfere with elections.  Within a few years, the clan died out but attacks continued.

17 PANIC OF 1873  Panic = Severe economic downturn  Major RR company lied about the value of land. When it was discovered, stocks crashed.  During the panic, 18,000 businesses failed.  Unemployment was at 14% and 2 million were out of work.  1874 – Democrats gain control of the House.

18 ELECTION OF 1876  Republicans:  Selected Rutherford B Hayes  Democrats:  Selected Samuel Tilden  Used violence to keep Republicans away in the south.  In the end, a commission decided the outcome.  Compromise of 1877 – Hayes takes the presidency in exchange for the end of Reconstruction in the south.

19 RESTRICTING AFRICAN AMERICAN RIGHTS  Poll tax – special tax people had to pay before they could vote.  Some states required a literacy test.  Segregation – the forced separation of white and African Americans in public.  Jim Crow laws upheld segregation.  So did Plessy v. Ferguson – supreme court case that said separate but equal was allowed


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