Presentation on theme: "RECONSTRUCTION. RECONSTRUCTION BEGINS When the war ended, the Union had to deal with the defeated south. Reconstruction, or the process of readmitting."— Presentation transcript:
RECONSTRUCTION BEGINS When the war ended, the Union had to deal with the defeated south. Reconstruction, or the process of readmitting the former Confederate states to the union, lasted from 1865-1877. Damaged South Cities, towns, and farms had been ruined. Many southerners faced starvation because of high food prices and widespread crop failures. The money held by Confederate banks was worthless and many merchants went bankrupt because people were unable to pay their debts.
LINCOLN’S PLAN Lincoln’s goal had always been to preserve the union. His goal now was to reunite the nation as quickly and painlessly as possible. He called his plan the Ten Percent Plan. It offered southerners amnesty, or official pardon for all illegal acts supporting the rebellion Southerners had to do two things: Swear an oath of loyalty to the U.S. Agree that slavery was illegal Once 10% of the voters agreed, the state could be readmitted to the Union
WADE-DAVIS BILL Some leaders in Congress believed they should have the power to control southern states’ return to the union. They thought the 10% plan did not go far enough. Two senators, Benjamin Wade & Henry Davis had an alternative to Lincoln’s plan. Wade-Davis Requirements: The state had to ban slavery A majority of adult males had to take an oath of loyalty. Under this plan, only southerners who swore they had never supported the Confederacy were able to vote or hold office. Lincoln refused to sign the plan because he believed his plan would restore order more quickly.
FREEDOM FOR AFRICAN-AMERICANS On January 31, 1865 at the urging of Abraham Lincoln, Congress proposed the 13 th Amendment – made slavery illegal throughout the United States. It took effect December 18, 1865.
FREEDOM FOR AFRICAN-AMERICANS Once slaves were set free, many couples got married, freed people searched for relatives who had been sold, women began to work at home, and others adopted children. Freed people began to take new last names and demanded the same economic and political rights as whites. Freedmen’s Bureau An agency created by Congress to provide relief for freed people and certain poor people in the south. The bureau played an important role in establishing schools in the south. Despite this, many southerners still believed that African Americans should not attend school.
A NEW PRESIDENT April 14, 1865 Lincoln attended a play with his wife at Ford’s Theater in Washington, D.C. During the play, John Wilkes Booth assassinated Lincoln. Lincoln was rushed across the street to a boardinghouse but he died early the next morning. Vice President Andrew Johnson was sworn into office. Johnson said that former Confederate officials needed a Presidential pardon to receive amnesty. Ford’s Theater
NEW STATE GOVERNMENTS Johnson had his own plan for readmitting states: Temporary Governor for each state State constitutions needed to be revised Voters elected state and federal representatives Had to declare secession illegal and ratify the 13 th amendment. Congress disagreed as many of the reps were former Confederate leaders. The Union remained divided.
OPPOSITION TO JOHNSON Black Codes – laws that were passed by southern states to limit the freedom of African Americans. African Americans were required to sign work contracts. Codes angered many Republicans who thought the south was returning to its old ways. Radical Republicans – wanted the federal government to force change in the south. Two Radicals: Thaddeus Stevens & Charles Sumner Both opposed Johnson
FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT Congress proposed a new bill to allow the Freedmen’s Bureau to try those who violated African American’s rights. Johnson Disagreed Republicans responded by passing the Civil Rights Act of 1866 – Provided African Americans with the same legal rights as whites. Johnson Vetoed!!! – Did not think African Americans should have the same rights. Fearing the Act would be overturned, Republicans passed the 14 th Amendment: Defined African Americans as citizens Guaranteed equal protection Must allow for due process Banned Confederate officials from holding office State laws subject to federal review Congress had the power to pass any laws needed to enforce it
RECONSTRUCTION ACTS After the election, Congress passed the Reconstruction Acts – Divided the South into five military districts To be readmitted: Constitution had to support the 14 th amendments and African American men had to be given the right to vote.
1866 ELECTIONS Main Issue: Civil rights for African Americans Johnson traveled the country to speak against it. His trip was a disaster. Riots broke out in Memphis and New Orleans killing nearly 40 people. Outcome: Republicans gained a 2/3 majority making it possible to override a veto.
PRESIDENT ON TRIAL Johnson opposed the Reconstruction Acts and Congress knew it. Congress passed a law limiting the power of the President but he broke the law immediately. As a result, the House voted to impeach him. Impeach – bring charges of wrongdoing against a public official Saved by one vote.
ELECTION OF 1868 Grant was nominated for the Republican ticket. Shortly after he was nominated, 7 states were re-admitted. African Americans in those states helped Grant win a narrow victory. 15 th Amendment – Gave African American men the right to vote
CARPETBAGGERS & SCALAWAGS Carpetbaggers: Northern-born republicans who moved south after the war and were accused of trying to profit off of the south. Scalawag: White southern Republicans, also called greedy. Southerners believed these people betrayed them.
AFRICAN AMERICAN LEADERS & THE KKK African Americans = Largest group of voters in the south. Hiriam Revels – became the first African American to serve in the U.S. Senate. The KKK Created by a group of white southerners in TN to oppose civil rights for African Americans. Biggest threat = suffrage. Attacked and murdered African Americans, white Republicans, and public officials. Congress passed laws to make it a crime to interfere with elections. Within a few years, the clan died out but attacks continued.
PANIC OF 1873 Panic = Severe economic downturn Major RR company lied about the value of land. When it was discovered, stocks crashed. During the panic, 18,000 businesses failed. Unemployment was at 14% and 2 million were out of work. 1874 – Democrats gain control of the House.
ELECTION OF 1876 Republicans: Selected Rutherford B Hayes Democrats: Selected Samuel Tilden Used violence to keep Republicans away in the south. In the end, a commission decided the outcome. Compromise of 1877 – Hayes takes the presidency in exchange for the end of Reconstruction in the south.
RESTRICTING AFRICAN AMERICAN RIGHTS Poll tax – special tax people had to pay before they could vote. Some states required a literacy test. Segregation – the forced separation of white and African Americans in public. Jim Crow laws upheld segregation. So did Plessy v. Ferguson – supreme court case that said separate but equal was allowed