Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 7 ROME PACKET Rome’s origins – Legend = Romulus, Remus, Mars, wolf, Romulus started city called Rome."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 7 ROME PACKET Rome’s origins – Legend = Romulus, Remus, Mars, wolf, Romulus started city called Rome.
Artifacts = Latins settled near Tiber river, B.C. United with other people already there. Formed the city of Rome.
Etruscan Kings began to control area, B.C. Very advanced, taught ideas to all. Divided Romans into two groups : 1. Patricians – wealthy. 2. Plebeians – common, working. Not equal, tensions increased between them.
Romans got rid or E. Kings and organized a new government. New government = Republic. Republic – elected officials had power but only patricians could be elected. Still not equal!
Government had consul (highest), a Senate (like USA), tribunes (watchdogs), and veto power (like USA). Just like our government. President Congress Courts Executive Legislative Judicial
Romans established laws, 12 Tablets. Took into consideration the future and incorporated ideas of the conquered people. Laws : 1. all citizens are equal. 2. innocent until proven guilty. 3. right to know who is accusing you. 4. no punishment for what you think.
Chapter 7 Rome Quick Check #1 1. Romans overthrew the Etruscan Kings and set up a form of government called a Republic. Define a Republic: 2. Write the U.S.A. equivalents: Consul = _______________ Senate = ________________ Tribunes = ______________ 3. Romans established laws. Name two laws that the U.S.A. uses.
Expansion now that gov't in place. 1st, conquest of surrounding lands. Carthage (city on N.Africa) controlled trade in Western Med. Sea. Rome wanted this.... fought Carthage - called Punic Wars ( BC). "Punic" because Phoenicians started Carthage.
Rome defeated Carthage, gained control of African coast and Spain, Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. By 64 BC, conquered almost all land around Med. Sea plus Macedonia, Greece, Syria, Turkey. Conquered lands became provinces.
In 50's BC, Rome wanted land north of Italy. J Caesar's army invaded present day France (Gaul). Gallic wars got Rome more land.... Western Europe - present day GB, Germany, Austria, Switz., Bulgaria, etc.
All the growth brought changes (IMPACTS): 1. wealthy got wealthier. 2. slaves and conquered moved into Rome, took jobs (cheap labor), increased unemployment among the plebeians. Pleb.'s had to sell land....more moved to city in search of job.....increase unemployment in cities. Gangs formed. Increase in crime. 3. welfare increased.
These economic problems and pleb. unhappiness led to civil wars. Romans fought Romans. People needed peace and security and were willing to give up Republic and use Dictators. Dictators abused power.....some military leaders fought for control....J. Caesar.
J. Caesar saw problems with gov't and became popular with plebeian. He fought other military leaders for control. In 46 BC Julius Caesar became only ruler of Roman Empire. He:
1. made army & gov't more efficient. 2. Senate made to better represent provinces and people. 3. made more people citizens. 4. created more jobs and reduced the need for welfare.
J.C. had jealous enemies. 44 BC Caesar murdered by Marcus Brutus. Leadership went to friend, Marc Antony. Caesar's adopted son, Octavian, helped Antony catch and kill murderers but complete chaos!
Antony and Octavian ruled Empire together. Split it in half. Until Antony plotted with Cleopatra in Egypt to take over Octavian. War was declared on Antony. 31BC Octavian defeated Antony. Antony and Cleo committed suicide to avoid capture.
Octavian became the 1st emperor, 27 BC. Gave him the name "Augustus" = revered one. With the start of Augustus, empire enjoyed 200 years of peace, security & major accomplishments. Time was called Pax Romana or Roman peace. With Pax Romana, empire grew in size, more conquered. Trading and contacts went to China, northern Middle East and India. Ideas, culture, laws and Roman control spread to all of Europe, Africa and Asia.
During Pax Romana had good and bad emperors: 1. Augustus stepson, Tiberius, bad. 2. Caligula - 37 AD. madman, murderer, thought he was a God,made horse a Senator. 3. Nero - 54 AD. murdered wife and mom, pyromaniac, committed suicide.
1. Trajan - 98 AD. expanded borders even farther. 2. Hadrian AD. strengthened military. 3. Marcus Aurelius AD. one of the best, protected Rome's massive border…
… in order to save Roman soldiers lives hired German people to live on border and defend. Upon Aurelius death, empire started to decline. By 192 AD Pax Romana ended. Military leaders fought each other for control/ leadership of Empire. Other civilizations became powerful enough to challenge (militarily) the Romans.
Economic and political problems increased, weakened Empire. Too strengthen itself, Empire divided in half. Eastern Rome and Western Rome. The capital city (Rome) was moved to Byzantium and renamed Constantinople by the Emperor, Constantine (approx. 330AD). Western half became weak and poor. Eastern half grew stronger and wealthier.
Meanwhile Jesus had been born and was going around Roman Empire teaching his ideas. Jewish religion, One God, love, heaven, act properly, 10 Commandments. Had helpers called apostles. Romans thought Jesus was dangerous. Governor of Jerusalem, Pontius Pilate "sentenced" Jesus to death for crimes against Rome and Jews. After death, apostles and missionaries continued to spread/teach Jesus ideas
called it a new religion......Christianity. New religion spread fast!! More and more people began to believe. Roman gov't continued to persecute Christians until Emperor Constantine made this new religion = to all other religions.
THE FALL Roman Empire depended on "legions". Were professional soldiers called mercenaries. Gov't. hired Germans to serve in legions (called mercenaries).
Legions became more loyal to Germany and had no loyalty to Rome so, they didn't do their job of protecting the borders. A breakdown of law and order occurred, civil war, tribal attacks. Later they refused to defend or work for Empire.
Diseases, plagues, low birth rate, unemployment, left cities, people lost hope. Economic problems - trade lessened, less money to people, couldn't pay taxes, slaves ran away, less food, money worthless, gov't couldn't help.
Germans invaded Western half of Empire and took it over. Asian invaders, Huns, invaded Eastern half of Empire and took large parts, but not all. 476 AD. official end of Roman Empire.
Leftover Eastern half continued and renamed itself the Byzantine Empire. Capital remained Constantinople (Emperor Constantine). To be continued………..