Presentation on theme: "1861-1865 THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR. Election of 1860 Lower South Secedes War StartsHabeas Corpus Suspended 1.Democratic party splits 2.Lincoln leads Republican."— Presentation transcript:
THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
Election of 1860 Lower South Secedes War StartsHabeas Corpus Suspended 1.Democratic party splits 2.Lincoln leads Republican Party (only in North) 3.Lincoln wins without Southern votes 1.SC sees Lincoln’s win as Northern dominance 2.SC secedes to protest Lincoln’s election 3.Followed by GA, FL, AL, MS, LA & TX 1.President Buchanan refuses to stop secession 2.Lincoln refuses to recognize the CSA 3.Ft. Sumter= afterwards VA, NC, TN & AS secede 1. To keep border states (MO, KY, MD & DE) from seceding, Lincoln declares martial law (military rule) suspending writ of habeas corpus (civil liberties) to force states not to secede. CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR
Hopes for help from Europe Grows cotton for export, not food Better trained troops & more effective military leaders Homefield advantage Must outlast North to win Believe war being fought to preserve Constitutional rights More farms for food, factories, banks & money Strong gov’t More soldiers & immigrants Lacks effective military leaders Must conquer South to win Emancipation Proclamation gives war morality Advantages & Disadvantages & Strategies
PRESIDENTS Abraham Lincoln: US President who insisted that the Union be held together, by force if necessary Jefferson Davis: U.S. senator who became president of the Confederate States of America
GENERALS George McClellan 1 st Union general who was good at training troops, too cautious, always thought he was outnumbered. Ambrose Burnside Union general at Antietam & Fredericksburg who was too aggressive Ulysses S. Grant: Union military commander, won victories after several other Union commanders failed War of attrition
MORE GENERALS Robert E. Lee: Confederate general ( opposed secession, but did not believe the Union should be held together by force) After the war he urged Southerners to accept defeat and unite when some wanted to fight on after Appomattox Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson Confederate General Lee’s best general Rallies troops at Bull Run & Fredericksburg. Shot & died at Chancellorsville. William T. Sherman Union general Grant’s second in command Leads march across Georgia= total war against civilians. Captured Atlanta and Savannah.
Fort Sumter: Union GeneralConfederate GeneralOutcomeImportance Robert Anderson PGT Beauregard Union Surrenders after a siege First battle of the Civil War
Bull Run AKA Manassas Union GeneralConfederate General OutcomeImportance Irwin McDowell PGT Beauregard Stonewall Jackson Union Surrenders after fighting in a field. Convinces North the war will be long. Convinces South war will be short.
Anaconda Plan Union GeneralConfederate General OutcomeImportance George McClellan Robert E. Lee Union blockades Southern Atlantic coast to stop trade with England Goal = surround South & cut off supplies. Not effective
Peninsula Campaign Union General Confedera te General OutcomeImportance George McClellan Robert E. Lee McClellan tries to capture Richmond, but is convinced he is outnumbered & retreats McClella n is fired for the first time. North fears England will help the South
Antietam Union GeneralConfeder ate General OutcomeImportance George McClellan fired for being overly cautious Robert E. Lee McClellan has Confederate battle plans, but still thinks he is outnumbered Battle a tie. Changes goal of war to ending slavery North claims victory & prevents Europeans from helping the South. Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation
Fredericksburg Union General Confederate General OutcomeImportance Ambrose Burnside Robert E. Lee Burnside has to build bridges across Rappahannock. Crosses open field & loses 13,000. Lincoln wanted big victory to issue Emancipation Proclamation. North has worst loss ever.
Vicksburg Union General Confederate General OutcomeImportance US Grant John Pemberton Union siege of Confederate fort guarding the Mississippi River. Union wins Completes Anaconda Plan by Union taking control of Mississippi. Divides South & cuts off help from Texas
Gettysburg Union General Confederate General OutcomeImportance George Meade Robert E. Lee Union wins 3 day battle. Half of South’s army is dead. Lee tries to take war to North. Turning Point of War. Gettysburg Address
Wilderness Campaign Union General Confedera te General OutcomeImportance US Grant Robert E. Lee Grant takes over Union army. Pushes Lee back to defend Richmond Grant uses strategy of a “War of Attrition.” He outlasts South by using superior numbers.
March to the Sea Union General Confederate General OutcomeImportance William T. Sherma n John B. Hood Sherman takes Atlanta and Savannah. Destroys Southern economy Atlanta ensures Lincoln's re- election in Total War= destroys all aspects of South’s morale and economy
Richmond Campaign Union General Confedera te General OutcomeImportance US Grant Robert E. Lee Grant uses War of Attrition to stretch out Confederate defense. Breaks Petersburg & South flees Richmond Confederate capitol falls & Southern army retreats west. South burns its own factories- destroys Richmond.
Appomattox Union General Confeder ate General OutcomeImportance US Grant Robert E. Lee Grant chases down the Confederat e army, forcing surrender. Lee signs surrender papers ending the Civil War in April 1865.
Two weeks after peace, John Wilkes Booth shoots Abraham Lincoln in Ford’s Theater. Lincoln’s Assassination
The Emancipation Proclamation
The Gettysburg Address
Managed homes and families with scarce resources Often faced poverty and hunger Assumed new roles in agriculture, nursing, and war industries The Emancipation Proclamation allowed for the enlistment of African American soldiers. 54 th Massachusetts Regiment. Frederick Douglass: Former slave and abolitionist who urged Lincoln to recruit African Americans to fight in the Union army Warfare often involved hand-to-hand combat. Wartime diaries and letters home record. After the war, Southern soldiers returned to find destroyed homes and poverty. Soldiers on both sides lived with permanent disabilities. Women African Americans Common Soldiers
Emerged with a strong & growing industrial economy. Foundation for the Industrial Revolution. The United States becomes a global economic power. Southern states destroyed. Farms, railroads, and factories destroyed. Confederate $ worthless. Cities in ruins. Labor shortage = no more slavery. Remained an agricultural economy & poorest section. Huge economic boom. Economy based on agriculture, mining and railroads. Transcontinental Railroad is completed (1869), increasing movement west. NorthSouthWest