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GREAT DEPRESSION. Warm-Up: Pick up Notes Packet + Assignment Packet and answer top part of page 1  Schedule  Warm-Up  PowerPoint  Key Question/Closure:

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Presentation on theme: "GREAT DEPRESSION. Warm-Up: Pick up Notes Packet + Assignment Packet and answer top part of page 1  Schedule  Warm-Up  PowerPoint  Key Question/Closure:"— Presentation transcript:

1 GREAT DEPRESSION

2 Warm-Up: Pick up Notes Packet + Assignment Packet and answer top part of page 1  Schedule  Warm-Up  PowerPoint  Key Question/Closure: How did the US get itself into one of the worst economic disasters in history?  Assignment Packet page 1 due Wednesday

3 The Myth of Prosperity  Mood of most Americans in late 1920s was optimistic  In 1928, Republican President Herbert Hoover declared, “poverty will be banished from this nation.”  Few people realized that serious economic issues were coming

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5 Looking at this chart, what information jumps out at you? What does this graph tell us about the US economically?

6 Economic Danger Signs  Many industries were producing more and more goods Majority of middle class and poor incomes didn’t rise enough to buy additional goods (cars, refrigerators etc) + little savings 60% of America living on less than $2,000 a year = poverty line

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8  Many items were not sold and piled up in warehouses (too much supply, too little demand)  Businesses could not sell products  can’t pay for materials + salaries  close factories and lay off workers

9  Get-rich-quick’ attitude was popular  Speculation  practice of investors of buying and selling risky stocks in the hope of making a quick profit  To attract other than wealthy investors  buying on margin  investors could buy a stock for a fraction of its original price (10- 50%) and borrow the rest If stock prices fall  borrowers wouldn’t be able to repay loan

10 The Crash and the Great Depression  Only 8 months in office, President Hoover faced an economic calamity  October  Beginning of economic depression  severe economic slump (stock prices sharply decline)

11  Economy got worse when financial panic led to stock market crash of 1929  Stocks went from being worth a fortune to worthless  Investors tried to sell stock before going bankrupt  Oct 29 th  Black Tuesday  stock prices fell 75% Millions lost life savings

12  In the following months, thousands of banks closed (ran out of money)  People couldn’t afford everyday products  businesses laid off workers

13 The Great Depression  Great Depression  worst economic crisis in US history + impacted whole world  Many European countries borrowed from Europe to rebuild post WWI  When US economy tanked  called in loans that couldn’t be repaid  Europe’s economy failed  From (entry into WWII)

14 Hoover Loses the Nation  As unemployment, hunger and homelessness grew, Americans looked to President Hoover to end their suffering  Hoover did not want to increase the government’s role in the economy or aid to the needy  Encouraged private charities to aid people + businesses to maintain wages  Eventually, but too late, realized change was needed

15  Reconstruction Finance Corporation  govt- funded program give loans directly to banks  Public works—govt funded construction projects that would create jobs and assist communities with issues  Hoover Dam (cheap water-powered electricity)

16  Bonus Army Incident  WWI veterans promised bonus for service (not due until after 1940)  Veterans demand early payment in 1932  Congress rejected idea  Veterans protest outside Washington DC in Hooverville—village of huts + shacks

17  President Hoover ordered the army to clear the campsite  a few casualties  Shelters and belongings burned  Americans were outraged with incident + reputation as a ‘do- nothing’ president led America to choose Franklin D Roosevelt as president in 1932.

18 Warm-Up: Complete review questions on page 4 in Notes Packet  Schedule  Warm-Up  PowerPoint: FDR’s New Deal  Powerful speaker analysis  Key Question/Closure: How did FDR attempt to restore America’s confidence?  Assignment Packet page 1 due Wednesday

19 Who are the people in the political cartoon? What is happening in the cartoon with the 3 characters?

20 FDR Takes Charge  FDR’s words reassured Americans and gave them hope that their country could prosper once again  From November-March, country had to wait for FDR to become president  20 th Amendment  moved Inauguration to January  As FDR waited, he studied America’s problems

21  FDR created programs to fight Great Depression  New Deal  In First New Deal ( )  FDR focused on relief, recovery & reform

22  First 100 Days  period of time when the power and influence of the President is greatest and Congress is most cooperative

23  FDR’s initial steps:  Declare bank holiday  close all banks and have government inspectors examine health of all banks  Opened only banks that were in good shape  people begin to put money back in (banks begin to make loans)

24  Fire-side chats  series of radio talks in which he explained his policies to the American public

25 Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Insures bank deposits (your money) up to a certain amount Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Regulate stock market + protect investors Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Hired young men to work on conservation (plant trees and maintain beaches + parks) Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) Attempted to raise farm prices by paying farmers to lower farm output Public Works Administration (PWA) Created jobs by having people build public works (highways + bridges)

26 Warm-Up: Complete warm-up question on page 8 in notes packet  Schedule  Warm-Up  Social Security Analysis  FDR & Supreme Court Analysis  PowerPoint Notes  Key Question/Closure: Identify and describe the major issues FDR faced in his second term as President?  Assignment Packet page 2 due Friday

27 FDR’S 2 ND NEW DEAL  In 1935, Congress passed the Social Security Act— provide security, in the form of old age pensions, disability payments & unemployment benefits  While a person worked, a small amount of each paycheck goes to Social Security fund  Work matches employee’s contributions  When retired, person would receive monthly payments  Wagner Act  protect labor rights (form unions, collective bargaining—wages/conditions)

28 Roosevelt’s Critics How do these political cartoons illustrate issues with FDR’s New Deal policies?

29  Republicans  knew something had to be done about the Great Depression BUT Roosevelt went too far (too much government control + spending)  New Deal was seen as a form of socialism  take away private business, property, liberty = society control nation’s wealth  Democrats  New Deal programs didn’t go far enough (more spending/govt control)

30  Throughout the 1 st New Deal era, the Supreme Court had caused FDR his greatest frustration  Most of the 9 judges believed FDR’s programs gave the government too much power  declared several unconstitutional

31  1937, FDR proposed radical Supreme Court reform bill  Add 6 judges to original 9

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33  Many saw FDR’s real vision  ‘packing the court’ with judges who share his views and support New Deal laws  Interfered with checks/balances  vetoed  In end, Roosevelt, got what he wanted with Supreme Court justices dying and retiring but…lost more than he won  Harshly criticized (dictator)  united political opponents against him until WWII

34 New Deal Slows Down: Recession of 1937  Industrial production (supply) + employment decrease causes  Social Security tax  took money out of paycheck = less $$ spend  FDR cut back on supporting government-run programs FDR afraid of deficit spending— borrow money to fund programs while taking in less money Economy wouldn’t recover until WWII

35 Warm-Up: Start working on page 11 in notes packet.  Schedule  Warm-Up  Word-Web Activities  Key Question/Closure: How did the Great Depression happen? How did FDR attempt to solve the problem? What major issues did FDR run into?  Assignment Packet page 2 due tomorrow + Quiz

36 Warm-Up: Hand in review vocabulary page and go over quiz procedures  Schedule  Warm-Up  Great Depression Quiz  When finished, grab reading + questions and complete for section 3  Due Monday  Key Question/Closure: How did the Great Depression happen? How did FDR attempt to solve the problem? What major issues did FDR run into?  Assignment Packet page 3 due Monday

37 Warm-Up: Take out notes packet and answer questions near top of page 14  Schedule  Warm-Up  Dust Storm Disaster  PowerPoint  Railroad Reading  Key Question/Closure: How did most Americans fair during the Great Depression?  Assignment: NONE DBQ TOMORROW

38 Living Through Hard Times: Dust Bowl  Few people escaped financial hardship during the Great Depression  Farmers, especially on the Great Plains out west, were hit the hardest  In the early 1930s, a drought hit the Great Plains and lasted for several years  Land had already been damaged from before by farming and grazing practices  Winds picked up dry dirt and created mile long dust storms which ravaged farms and blocked out the sun  Areas affected: Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado, New Mexico (12,500 square miles)

39  With crops and cattle buried under layers of dirt  thousands of farmers moved to California for work (Okies from Oklahoma)  By 1940, 2.5 million people left the Midwest and traveled west But California farm towns quickly became over-populated  Took until the early 1940s for steady rain to return

40 Living Through Hard Times: Unemployment  Without work, families couldn’t afford to buy food  bread lines feed thousands  Lost homes  shacks, huts, under bridges, cars

41 Living Through Hard Times: Women & Kids  Children had to grow up fast during the Great Depression  Boys typically dropped out of school to work  Girls stayed home to take care of younger siblings  Some teens ran away from home to avoid being a burden to their families  Women had to give up their jobs to men or work in low-paying jobs men didn’t want

42 Warm-Up: Grab DBQ Packet and begin working on outline  Schedule  Warm-Up  Great Depression DBQ (outline + essay)  Key Question/Closure: What events led to the Great Depression? How were people affected?  Assignment: DBQ TOMORROW TEST COMING UP

43 Warm-Up: Answer the warm-up question on page 20 in notes packet  Schedule  Warm-Up  Letters to Mrs. Roosevelt  Grapes of Wrath  Key Question/Closure: Culturally, how was the Great Depression perceived?  Assignment: TEST COMING UP

44 Warm-Up: Students will pick up review packet questions and complete independently  Schedule  Warm-Up  Review packet  Class review of review packet  Key Question/Closure: How did the federal government respond to the Great Depression?  Assignment: TEST COMING UP

45 Warm-Up: Go over test procedures  Schedule  Warm-Up  Great Depression Test  Key Question/Closure: How did the federal government respond to the Great Depression?  Assignment: NONE

46 Warm-Up: Take Cinderella Man packet from front cart.  Schedule  Warm-Up  Great Depression discussion  Background on Cinderella Man + Writing Assignment  Cinderella Man Movie  Writing Assignment on Cinderella Man  Key Question/Closure: How does the movie Cinderella Man relate to our class discussions on the Great Depression?  Assignment: Cinderella Writing Assignment

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