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Revolution and Republic

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1 Revolution and Republic
Unit 6 Notes Revolution and Republic

2 Important Dates Texas Revolution
1824 – Mexican Constitution of 1824 1828 – Mier y Teran Report April 6, 1830 – Law of April 6th 1832 – Turtle Bayou Resolution January 1834 – Austin’s arrest 1835 – Battle of Gonzales March 2, 1836 Declaration of Independence February 23 – March 6, 1836, Battle of the Alamo March 6, 1836 – Fall of the Alamo March 27, 1836 – Mass Execution at Goliad

3 Important Dates Texas Revolution
April 21, 1836 Battle of San Jacinto June 1836 Treaties of Velasco

4 Important Dates Texas Republic
1836 – Sam Houston is elected president 1838 – Mirabeau Lamar is elected president 1840 – Council House fight 1842 – Mier expedition 1841 – Sam Houston is elected president 1844 – Anson Jones is elected president 1845 – Texas is annexed into the United States

5 Events that Led to the Texas Revolution

6 Fredonian Rebellion In 1826, in Nacogdoches of a group of Texans formed the Fredonian Republic led by the Edwards Brothers and claimed the area was no longer under Mexican control. Stephen F. Austin sided with the Mexican government and marched to Nacogdoches to help stop the rebellion. It ended very quickly Fredonian Flag

7 Mier y Teran In 1828, the Mexican government sent General Manuel Mier y Teran to investigate the conditions in northern Texas. He found that Anglo-Americans outnumbered the Mexicans 10 to 1 The report resulted in the law of April 6

8 Law of April 6, 1830 Due to the Mier y Teran report Mexico outlawed immigration from the US to Texas, and canceled all empresario grants that had not been fulfilled. Slaves could no longer be brought into Mexico to work Placed customs duties on all items entering Texas from the U.S. However, Mexico encouraged European immigration

9 Turtle Bayou Resolutions
Anahuac settlers gathered at Turtle Bayou because of the disturbance at Anahuac John Austin was sent to retrieve a cannon to be brought back from Brazoria and drafted resolutions that stated that they pledged their continued loyalty to Mexico under the Constitution of 1824 Santa Anna seemed to support the Constitution of 1824 This event resulted in Colonel Jose de Los Piedras ordering the release of William B. Travis and Patrick jack from jail Bradburn was dismissed of his command

10 Arrest of Stephen F. Austin
Austin travels to Mexico to meet with Mexican officials and delivers the resolutions written by written by Texas officials about their concerns When he gets there Santa Anna had become the leader of Mexico. However, so much time has gone by that he writes a letter to Texas officials and tells them to establish a state government He gets a meeting with Santa Anna who agrees to make some of the changes Texas officials have asked for On his return to Texas Austin is arrested for treason. This is because of the letter he wrote about forming a state government

11 Important People Santa Anna Sam Houston

12 Important People George Childress – chaired the committee in charge of writing the Texas Declaration of Independence Lorenzo de Zavala – Helped write the Texas Declaration of Independence and helped design the interim government at Washington-on-the Brazos. He was elected Vice President of the new republic James Fannin – Led the Texans at Coleto Creek and surrendered to Urrea. Later he was executed at Goliad by order of Santa Anna Sam Houston – Leader of the Revolutionary Army during the Texas Revolution

13 Important People Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna – Dictator of Mexico and military leader of the Mexican Army during the Texas Revolution Juan Seguin – Served with Travis at the Alamo but survived because he was sent out as a messenger to warn Sam Houston about the events at the Alamo. He continued to serve under Sam Houston at the battle of San Jacinto William B. Travis – Military leader of the Texas forces at the Alamo. Was killed by Mexican forces at the Alamo.

14 Significant Events

15 Texas Revolution Battle Map

16 Battle of Gonzales

17 Battle of Gonzales First battle of the Texas Revolution – October 2, 1835 Citizens of Gonzales would not give up a cannon that was given to them by the Mexican government to protect them from Indians A militia led by JH Moore flew a flag over it that said “Come and Take It” Lieutenant Fransisco Castneda led 100 men to Gonzales to take the cannon The militia fired the cannon on October 2 at the Mexican soldiers, a battle began, and so did the Texas Revolution

18 William B. Travis letter
Titled “To the People of Texas and All Americans in the World” Travis wrote this letter to recruit men to help him and his men at the Alamo after Santa Anna showed up in San Antonio February 23rd

19 The Siege of the Alamo and all the heroic defenders
Sam Houston ordered the Alamo to be destroyed James Bowie and James Neill decided that the Alamo was too important James Bowie and William Travis began to recruit supporters Santa Anna arrived in San Antonio The Texans moved in the Alamo and for 13 days fought the Mexicans. The fall of the Alamo occurred in the morning of March 6, 1836

20 Alamo Continued The fall of the Alamo occurred in the morning of March 6, 1836 1800 Mexican troops fought 189 Texans All Texans were killed and approximately 600 Mexican soldiers were killed

21 Heroes of the Alamo “Remember the Alamo”

22 Jim Bowie Commander of the Volunteers Fell ill while commanding
Famous for the “Bowie Knife” a very large knife named after him

23 David Crockett “King of the Wild Frontier”
Represented Tennessee in the House of Representatives Known for his Marksmanship (ability to accurately fire a gun)

24 William B. Travis Commander of the Alamo
Wrote famous letter “To the People of Texas and All Americans”: I am besieged, by a thousand or more of the Mexicans under Santa Anna. I have sustained a continual Bombardment and cannonade for 24 hours and have not lost a man. The enemy has demanded a surrender at discretion, otherwise, the garrison are to be put to the sword, if the fort is taken. I have answered the demand with a cannon shot, and our flag still waves proudly from the walls. I shall never surrender or retreat. Then, I call on you in the name of Liberty, of patriotism & everything dear to the American character, to come to our aid, with all dispatch. The enemy is receiving reinforcements daily and will no doubt increase to three or four thousand in four or five days. If this call is neglected, I am determined to sustain myself as long as possible and die like a soldier who never forgets what is due to his own honor & that of his country. Victory or Death. William Barret TravisLt. Col. Comdt. P.S. The Lord is on our side. When the enemy appeared in sight we had not three bushels of corn. We have since found in deserted houses 80 or 90 bushels and got into the walls 20 or 30 head of Beeves.

25 What happened to the Bodies?
Santa Anna ordered all of the bodies of the fallen to be burned. Juan Seguin later returned to the area and had a simple coffin built where the remains were placed No one knows for sure where the ashes are today

26 Constitutional Convention of 1836
Texas delegates met at Washington on the Brazos Declared independence from Mexico on March 2, 1836 Wrote a constitution to form an ad interim government for the Republic of Texas

27 Massacre at Goliad

28 Fannin’s Surrender at Goliad
Colonel James Fannin surrendered his 300 men at the Battle of Coleto because he was pinned on the open prairie They fought the Mexicans off but Fannin decided to surrender to prevent more deaths They were marched to Goliad and Urrea told them they were not going to be killed but Santa Anna order the captives to all be shot on March 21. Execution takes place March 27, 1836

29 Battle of San Jacinto

30 Battle of San Jacinto April 21, 1836
Shortest battle in history – lasted 18 minutes Sam Houston led the Texas forces men Santa Anna led the Mexican forces – 1300 men Houston burned every way out of San Jacinto and attacked the Mexican Army about 3:00pm (siesta/nap time) Santa Anna was captured the next day and surrendered to Sam Houston

31 Republic of Texas

32 President Sam Houston First Administration ( ) – Houston focused on forming a government and dealing with the issues of debt and the army, conflict with Native Americans and Mexico, and selecting a capitol

33 Texas Rangers When Sam Houston became President, he dismissed the army because of its cost and bad leadership. He replaced them by reinstating the Texas Rangers. He used them to fight the attacks by the Indians and the Mexican soldiers that crossed the border. Jack Coffee Hays – Famous Texas Ranger, surveyor of the Republic of Texas and Captain of Texas Ranger company.

34 Chief Bowles Leader of a group of Cherokees that arrived in Texas in He signed a treaty with Sam Houston during the Texas Revolution. Statue of Sam Houston and Chief Bowles signing a peace agreement during the Texas Revolution

35 Maribeau Lamar President: Vice President: David G. Burnet He is known as the “Father of education _______________.” ( ) How old was I when I died? Do the math! 61

36 Background Information
Lamar grew up on a plantation in Georgia. reader He was an avid _________, and was accepted into Princeton University but declined the offer. educated He was well- e__ __ __ __ __ __ __and enhanced this through constant reading. poetry He loved to write ______________. (roses are red, violets..) married He was _____________________ twice and had one son.

37 Background Information
oil Lamar enjoyed ____________ painting. fencer He was an expert horseman and an accomplished ________. Lamar was against the Indians, and believed that it was necessary to bring about the “total extinction" of the Indian tribes.

38 Chief Bowles 1839 – during the Lamar expedition Chief Bowels was ordered to lead the Cherokees out of Texas. Chief Bowels refused and Lamar ordered the militia to force them out. Bowles was killed and the Cherokees were forced to move to present-day Oklahoma.

39 Council House Fight March 19, 1840
A group of Comanche leaders agreed to meet in San Antonio to surrender all Anglo captives They only delivered one captive – Matilda Lockhart Texans were angry and refused to let the Indians leave Indians tried to leave and were attacked Led to the death of many Comanche leaders and 7 Texans To this date the Comanche nation refuses to make peace with the Texas Rangers over this event

40 Lamar’s Policies Lamar urged that the Cherokee and Comanche tribes be driven from their lands in Texas, even if the tribes must be destroyed. bank He also proposed to create a national _______ and to secure a loan from either the United States or Europe.

41 Redbacks To fill the treasury, he authorized issuance of a large amount of Republic of Texas paper money, known as Redbacks. The paper money was virtually worthless. Spending doubled during Lamar's term, and combined with the worthless currency, caused financial difficulties for the government.

42 Policies Continued ships Lamar bought several _________ for the Navy and kept the Navy on active duty. Austin In 1838, he moved the capital of Texas to ______________(hint: it’s named after the “Father of Texas”) Lamar, the “Father of Education," convinced the legislature to set aside land for each county to equip schools. He also set aside land for Texas A&M University and the University of Texas. Although nothing was implemented during his term, these actions led to the foundation for a statewide public school system.

43 Texas Navy During the Houston’s administration the Navy protected the nation’s coast but it was a drain on the economy Lamar had congress issue bonds to buy ships They were used to conduct unsuccessful secret peace negotiations between Texas and Mexico Very costly and not successful

44 What are some of the strengths and weaknesses for ships in the Texas Republican Navy?

45 Santa Fe Expedition Lamar's Administration
June 1841 – Lamar sent troops to claim the western boundary of Texas- all the land East of the Rio Grande which included Santa Fe and parts of present day New Mexico By the time the Texans got their they were in short supply and exhausted Texans were captured and thrown in prison Expedition cost a great deal of money and was a failure

46 Famous Quote “A cultivated mind is the guardian genius of democracy and, while guided and controlled by virtue, the noblest attribute of man. It is the only dictator that freemen acknowledge and the only security that freemen desire.“ What does this mean?

47 Annexation / Debt against Lamar was ____________ annexation. Debt for the Republic of Texas went from $2 million to siete million.

48 Sam Houston His second term as President: Vice-President Edward Burleson According to the Texas constitution, a person could not be elected two times in a row. Most Texans were unhappy with the conflict during Lamar’s administration and re-elected Houston. How many years did Houston serve as president of Texas (both terms / use the partial years as one)? 7

49 Policies / Debt government
To cut back on the debt, Houston eliminated ___________ positions. salaries Reduced sa _ _ _ _ _ _ of government officials. army Cut the size of the _________ naval Docked the _______ ships and attempted to sell them. Reduced the debt of Texas to $511,000. By how much did he reduce the debt from his first term to his second term? $1,489,000

50 Texas Rangers/Mier Expedition
Due to the Santa Fe expedition, Mexico began to invade Texas Houston sent Texas Rangers to guard the expedition until the threat was over A battle enraged for two days and the Texans surrendered Texans were marched to Mexico City and executed by Santa Anna (again the ruler of Mexico) by drawing a black bean out of a bag.

51 Slavery in the Republic of Texas
The status of African Americans changed dramatically during the Republic of Texas. Slavery was legalized and free slaves had to get an act of Congress to remain legally in Texas

52 Doctor Anson Jones President: Vice-President: Kenneth L. Anderson architect He is known as the “ _________ of Annexation” ( ) He died at the age of 59 after taking his own life. Jones was found “lying across his bed…with a discharged pistol in his hand.

53 Background Information
He was from Great Barrington, Massachusetts. As a young boy, he lived in poverty. He had 13 brothers and sisters and three children of his own. He received his medical degree in 1827 and moved to Texas in 1833. Battle of San Jacinto He fought with Houston in the ____________. Jones was also a businessman and a congressman.

54 Policies balanced Jones strived for a ___________ budget, but it was difficult due to the depression and high interest rates on the public debt.

55 Annexation in favor of Jones was strongly ___________ annexation.

56 Debt The debt for Texas went up to: 10 million

57 Famous Quote On February 19, 1846, at a formal ceremony in Austin, the American flag was raised over the Texas Capitol. Texas President Jones, the “Architect of Annexation,”lowered the Lone Star Flag of Texas and proclaimed, “The Republic of Texas is no more.”

58 Texas became a state on December 29, 1845

59 The Texas Government

60 Republicanism A belief that government should be based on the consent of the people. People exercise their power by voting for political representatives. Article 1 Section 3 of the Texas Constitution: the members of the House of Representatives shall be chosen annually, on the first Monday of September each year, until Congress shall otherwise provide by law, and shall hold their offices on year from the date of the election. Question? Why do we not elect people for life? Why do we need to vote so often?

61 Limited Government The principle that requires all U.S. citizens, including government leaders to obey the law Question? Why should everyone including our leaders have to obey the law? What could happen if we did not have a limited government?

62 Checks and Balances The ability of each branch of government to exercise checks, or controls, over the other branches

63 Federalism A system of government where power is shared among the central (Federal Government) and the states

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