Presentation on theme: "Revolution and Republic"— Presentation transcript:
1Revolution and Republic Unit 6 NotesRevolution and Republic
2Important Dates Texas Revolution 1824 – Mexican Constitution of 18241828 – Mier y Teran ReportApril 6, 1830 – Law of April 6th1832 – Turtle Bayou ResolutionJanuary 1834 – Austin’s arrest1835 – Battle of GonzalesMarch 2, 1836 Declaration of IndependenceFebruary 23 – March 6, 1836, Battle of the AlamoMarch 6, 1836 – Fall of the AlamoMarch 27, 1836 – Mass Execution at Goliad
3Important Dates Texas Revolution April 21, 1836 Battle of San JacintoJune 1836 Treaties of Velasco
4Important Dates Texas Republic 1836 – Sam Houston is elected president1838 – Mirabeau Lamar is elected president1840 – Council House fight1842 – Mier expedition1841 – Sam Houston is elected president1844 – Anson Jones is elected president1845 – Texas is annexed into the United States
6Fredonian RebellionIn 1826, in Nacogdoches of a group of Texans formed the Fredonian Republic led by the Edwards Brothers and claimed the area was no longer under Mexican control.Stephen F. Austin sided with the Mexican government and marched to Nacogdoches to help stop the rebellion.It ended very quicklyFredonian Flag
7Mier y TeranIn 1828, the Mexican government sent General Manuel Mier y Teran to investigate the conditions in northern Texas. He found that Anglo-Americans outnumbered the Mexicans 10 to 1The report resulted in the law of April 6
8Law of April 6, 1830Due to the Mier y Teran report Mexico outlawed immigration from the US to Texas, and canceled all empresario grants that had not been fulfilled.Slaves could no longer be brought into Mexico to workPlaced customs duties on all items entering Texas from the U.S.However, Mexico encouraged European immigration
9Turtle Bayou Resolutions Anahuac settlers gathered at Turtle Bayou because of the disturbance at AnahuacJohn Austin was sent to retrieve a cannon to be brought back from Brazoria and drafted resolutions that stated that they pledged their continued loyalty to Mexico under the Constitution of 1824Santa Anna seemed to support the Constitution of 1824This event resulted in Colonel Jose de Los Piedras ordering the release of William B. Travis and Patrick jack from jailBradburn was dismissed of his command
10Arrest of Stephen F. Austin Austin travels to Mexico to meet with Mexican officials and delivers the resolutions written by written by Texas officials about their concernsWhen he gets there Santa Anna had become the leader of Mexico. However, so much time has gone by that he writes a letter to Texas officials and tells them to establish a state governmentHe gets a meeting with Santa Anna who agrees to make some of the changes Texas officials have asked forOn his return to Texas Austin is arrested for treason. This is because of the letter he wrote about forming a state government
12Important PeopleGeorge Childress – chaired the committee in charge of writing the Texas Declaration of IndependenceLorenzo de Zavala – Helped write the Texas Declaration of Independence and helped design the interim government at Washington-on-the Brazos. He was elected Vice President of the new republicJames Fannin – Led the Texans at Coleto Creek and surrendered to Urrea. Later he was executed at Goliad by order of Santa AnnaSam Houston – Leader of the Revolutionary Army during the Texas Revolution
13Important PeopleAntonio Lopez de Santa Anna – Dictator of Mexico and military leader of the Mexican Army during the Texas RevolutionJuan Seguin – Served with Travis at the Alamo but survived because he was sent out as a messenger to warn Sam Houston about the events at the Alamo. He continued to serve under Sam Houston at the battle of San JacintoWilliam B. Travis – Military leader of the Texas forces at the Alamo. Was killed by Mexican forces at the Alamo.
17Battle of GonzalesFirst battle of the Texas Revolution – October 2, 1835Citizens of Gonzales would not give up a cannon that was given to them by the Mexican government to protect them from IndiansA militia led by JH Moore flew a flag over it that said “Come and Take It”Lieutenant Fransisco Castneda led 100 men to Gonzales to take the cannonThe militia fired the cannon on October 2 at the Mexican soldiers, a battle began, and so did the Texas Revolution
18William B. Travis letter Titled “To the People of Texas and All Americans in the World”Travis wrote this letter to recruit men to help him and his men at the Alamo after Santa Anna showed up in San Antonio February 23rd
19The Siege of the Alamo and all the heroic defenders Sam Houston ordered the Alamo to be destroyedJames Bowie and James Neill decided that the Alamo was too importantJames Bowie and William Travis began to recruit supportersSanta Anna arrived in San AntonioThe Texans moved in the Alamo and for 13 days fought the Mexicans.The fall of the Alamo occurred in the morning of March 6, 1836
20Alamo ContinuedThe fall of the Alamo occurred in the morning of March 6, 18361800 Mexican troops fought 189 TexansAll Texans were killed and approximately 600 Mexican soldiers were killed
22Jim Bowie Commander of the Volunteers Fell ill while commanding Famous for the “Bowie Knife” a very large knife named after him
23David Crockett “King of the Wild Frontier” Represented Tennessee in the House of RepresentativesKnown for his Marksmanship (ability to accurately fire a gun)
24William B. Travis Commander of the Alamo Wrote famous letter “To the People of Texas and All Americans”:I am besieged, by a thousand or more of the Mexicans under Santa Anna. I have sustained a continual Bombardment and cannonade for 24 hours and have not lost a man. The enemy has demanded a surrender at discretion, otherwise, the garrison are to be put to the sword, if the fort is taken. I have answered the demand with a cannon shot, and our flag still waves proudly from the walls. I shall never surrender or retreat. Then, I call on you in the name of Liberty, of patriotism & everything dear to the American character, to come to our aid, with all dispatch. The enemy is receiving reinforcements daily and will no doubt increase to three or four thousand in four or five days. If this call is neglected, I am determined to sustain myself as long as possible and die like a soldier who never forgets what is due to his own honor & that of his country. Victory or Death.William Barret TravisLt. Col. Comdt.P.S. The Lord is on our side. When the enemy appeared in sight we had not three bushels of corn. We have since found in deserted houses 80 or 90 bushels and got into the walls 20 or 30 head of Beeves.
25What happened to the Bodies? Santa Anna ordered all of the bodies of the fallen to be burned.Juan Seguin later returned to the area and had a simple coffin built where the remains were placedNo one knows for sure where the ashes are today
26Constitutional Convention of 1836 Texas delegates met at Washington on the BrazosDeclared independence from Mexico on March 2, 1836Wrote a constitution to form an ad interim government for the Republic of Texas
28Fannin’s Surrender at Goliad Colonel James Fannin surrendered his 300 men at the Battle of Coleto because he was pinned on the open prairieThey fought the Mexicans off but Fannin decided to surrender to prevent more deathsThey were marched to Goliad and Urrea told them they were not going to be killed but Santa Anna order the captives to all be shot on March 21.Execution takes place March 27, 1836
30Battle of San Jacinto April 21, 1836 Shortest battle in history – lasted 18 minutesSam Houston led the Texas forces menSanta Anna led the Mexican forces – 1300 menHouston burned every way out of San Jacinto and attacked the Mexican Army about 3:00pm (siesta/nap time)Santa Anna was captured the next day and surrendered to Sam Houston
32President Sam HoustonFirst Administration ( ) – Houston focused on forming a government and dealing with the issues of debt and the army, conflict with Native Americans and Mexico, and selecting a capitol
33Texas RangersWhen Sam Houston became President, he dismissed the army because of its cost and bad leadership. He replaced them by reinstating the Texas Rangers. He used them to fight the attacks by the Indians and the Mexican soldiers that crossed the border.Jack Coffee Hays – Famous Texas Ranger, surveyor of the Republic of Texas and Captain of Texas Ranger company.
34Chief BowlesLeader of a group of Cherokees that arrived in Texas in He signed a treaty with Sam Houston during the Texas Revolution.Statue of Sam Houston and Chief Bowles signing a peace agreement during the Texas Revolution
35Maribeau LamarPresident: Vice President: David G. Burnet He is known as the “Father of education _______________.” ( ) How old was I when I died? Do the math! 61
36Background Information Lamar grew up on a plantation in Georgia.readerHe was an avid _________, and was accepted into Princeton University but declined the offer.educatedHe was well- e__ __ __ __ __ __ __and enhanced this through constant reading.poetryHe loved to write ______________. (roses are red, violets..)marriedHe was _____________________ twice and had one son.
37Background Information oil Lamar enjoyed ____________ painting. fencer He was an expert horseman and an accomplished ________. Lamar was against the Indians, and believed that it was necessary to bring about the “total extinction" of the Indian tribes.
38Chief Bowles1839 – during the Lamar expedition Chief Bowels was ordered to lead the Cherokees out of Texas. Chief Bowels refused and Lamar ordered the militia to force them out.Bowles was killed and the Cherokees were forced to move to present-day Oklahoma.
39Council House Fight March 19, 1840 A group of Comanche leaders agreed to meet in San Antonio to surrender all Anglo captivesThey only delivered one captive – Matilda LockhartTexans were angry and refused to let the Indians leaveIndians tried to leave and were attackedLed to the death of many Comanche leaders and 7 TexansTo this date the Comanche nation refuses to make peace with the Texas Rangers over this event
40Lamar’s PoliciesLamar urged that the Cherokee and Comanche tribes be driven from their lands in Texas, even if the tribes must be destroyed. bank He also proposed to create a national _______ and to secure a loan from either the United States or Europe.
41RedbacksTo fill the treasury, he authorized issuance of a large amount of Republic of Texas paper money, known as Redbacks. The paper money was virtually worthless. Spending doubled during Lamar's term, and combined with the worthless currency, caused financial difficulties for the government.
42Policies Continuedships Lamar bought several _________ for the Navy and kept the Navy on active duty. Austin In 1838, he moved the capital of Texas to ______________(hint: it’s named after the “Father of Texas”) Lamar, the “Father of Education," convinced the legislature to set aside land for each county to equip schools. He also set aside land for Texas A&M University and the University of Texas. Although nothing was implemented during his term, these actions led to the foundation for a statewide public school system.
43Texas NavyDuring the Houston’s administration the Navy protected the nation’s coast but it was a drain on the economyLamar had congress issue bonds to buy shipsThey were used to conduct unsuccessful secret peace negotiations between Texas and MexicoVery costly and not successful
44What are some of the strengths and weaknesses for ships in the Texas Republican Navy?
45Santa Fe Expedition Lamar's Administration June 1841 – Lamar sent troops to claim the western boundary of Texas- all the land East of the Rio Grande which included Santa Fe and parts of present day New MexicoBy the time the Texans got their they were in short supply and exhaustedTexans were captured and thrown in prisonExpedition cost a great deal of money and was a failure
46Famous Quote“A cultivated mind is the guardian genius of democracy and, while guided and controlled by virtue, the noblest attribute of man. It is the only dictator that freemen acknowledge and the only security that freemen desire.“ What does this mean?
47Annexation / Debtagainst Lamar was ____________ annexation. Debt for the Republic of Texas went from $2 million to siete million.
48Sam HoustonHis second term as President: Vice-President Edward Burleson According to the Texas constitution, a person could not be elected two times in a row. Most Texans were unhappy with the conflict during Lamar’s administration and re-elected Houston. How many years did Houston serve as president of Texas (both terms / use the partial years as one)? 7
49Policies / Debt government To cut back on the debt, Houston eliminated ___________ positions.salariesReduced sa _ _ _ _ _ _ of government officials.armyCut the size of the _________navalDocked the _______ ships and attempted to sell them.Reduced the debt of Texas to $511,000. By how much did he reduce the debt from his first term to his second term?$1,489,000
50Texas Rangers/Mier Expedition Due to the Santa Fe expedition, Mexico began to invade TexasHouston sent Texas Rangers to guard the expedition until the threat was overA battle enraged for two days and the Texans surrenderedTexans were marched to Mexico City and executed by Santa Anna (again the ruler of Mexico) by drawing a black bean out of a bag.
51Slavery in the Republic of Texas The status of African Americans changed dramatically during the Republic of Texas. Slavery was legalized and free slaves had to get an act of Congress to remain legally in Texas
52Doctor Anson JonesPresident: Vice-President: Kenneth L. Anderson architect He is known as the “ _________ of Annexation” ( ) He died at the age of 59 after taking his own life. Jones was found “lying across his bed…with a discharged pistol in his hand.
53Background Information He was from Great Barrington, Massachusetts.As a young boy, he lived in poverty.He had 13 brothers and sisters and three children of his own.He received his medical degree in 1827 and moved to Texas in 1833.Battle of San JacintoHe fought with Houston in the ____________.Jones was also a businessman and a congressman.
54PoliciesbalancedJones strived for a ___________ budget, but it was difficult due to the depression and high interest rates on the public debt.
55Annexationin favor ofJones was strongly ___________ annexation.
57Famous QuoteOn February 19, 1846, at a formal ceremony in Austin, the American flag was raised over the Texas Capitol. Texas President Jones, the “Architect of Annexation,”lowered the Lone Star Flag of Texas and proclaimed, “The Republic of Texas is no more.”
60RepublicanismA belief that government should be based on the consent of the people. People exercise their power by voting for political representatives.Article 1 Section 3 of the Texas Constitution: the members of the House of Representatives shall be chosen annually, on the first Monday of September each year, until Congress shall otherwise provide by law, and shall hold their offices on year from the date of the election.Question?Why do we not elect people for life?Why do we need to vote so often?
61Limited GovernmentThe principle that requires all U.S. citizens, including government leaders to obey the lawQuestion?Why should everyone including our leaders have to obey the law?What could happen if we did not have a limited government?
62Checks and BalancesThe ability of each branch of government to exercise checks, or controls, over the other branches
63FederalismA system of government where power is shared among the central (Federal Government) and the states