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The American Revolution War for Independence. OBJECTIVE Explain why Americans realize that they could not go back to living under the rule of Britain.

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Presentation on theme: "The American Revolution War for Independence. OBJECTIVE Explain why Americans realize that they could not go back to living under the rule of Britain."— Presentation transcript:

1 The American Revolution War for Independence

2 OBJECTIVE Explain why Americans realize that they could not go back to living under the rule of Britain but must move forward toward independence

3 War Begins Battle of Bunker Hill Americans hold off two Redcoat attacks

4 Green Mountain Boys capture forts near Crown Point and Ticonderoga

5 Second Continental Congress Central Government Supply troops, send people to France George Washington was Commander in Chief (President)

6 Lexington and Concord Militia being formed in all colonies Redcoats sent to destroy ammunition at Concord Sons of Liberty sent Paul Revere to alert everyone

7 Minutemen meet Redcoats at Lexington and are defeated Redcoats burn gunpowder, then are defeated by minutemen firing from behind trees and stonewalls on their way back.

8 Not Ready For Independence Most colonists still want unity with Britain Blame their problems on ministers, NOT King George III

9 King George III wants the traitors tried for treason He hires Hessians (German soldiers) to team up with his armies to help

10 Moving Towards Independence Common Sense by Thomas Paine – Attacks the king and monarchy Early American victories a. Dorchester Heights (used stolen cannon to drive back recoats) America is holding out for France’s help, but they will not help until America declares its independence Dorchester Heights

11 Declaration of Independence Most of it was written by Thomas Jefferson Time Limited, so he took other’s ideas John Locke Enlightenment Natural Rights: Life, Liberty, Property Social Contract

12 Declaration of Independence Preamble – explains why colonists are publically declaring their independence Declaration of Rights – general theories of government List of Grievances Formal resolution of independence

13 Declaration of Independence Unalienable rights – Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of happiness Social Contract – Governments are set up to secure natural rights a. Get their power from consent of people b. If government is not doing their job, they can be removed Did everything they could to stay united, but were turned away

14 Influence of Declaration Americans look to it for freedom and equality Other countries look to it for the same reasons (France, India)

15 A Fight For Freedom

16 Objective Explain the advantages that both sides had during the war

17 Advantages Britain a. Well trained soldiers b. more money equals more supplies c. more troops America a. Washington b. Fighting on their own soil

18 Defeats 55,000 troops sail to New York City William Howe (redcoat) offers pardons to the rebels Washington Declines Redcoats take New York City

19 Washington retreats through New Jersey to the Delaware River Continental Army is down to 5,000

20 Battle of Trenton

21 Battle of Princeton Gen. Howe heard about Trenton, sends Gen. Cornwallis to capture Washington’s troops. Washington outnumbered, pretends to be trapped, leaves men behind to tend campfires, then slipped away Surprised a force of redcoats at Princeton and move into hills of NJ Gen. Howe Gen. Cornwallis

22 Troop & Money Problems Enlistments were short, so numbers always a problem Most served in winter, then farmed in spring and summer “Continentals” = worthless Robert Morris (PA) pledges money to American Revolution = Washington troops can move from NY to Yorktown, Va

23 ????????? WHY ????????? To gain intelligence Report troop movements and other plans

24 George Washington Spy master Valued good intelligence Stems from a defeat in the French and Indian War Paid a man $333 to begin recruiting a network of spies

25 Nathan Hale Great spy, school teacher by trade Washington asks for a spy, Hale steps up Disguised himself as a Dutch school master His cousin ratted him out, and he was hung “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”

26 Committee of Secret Correspondence They gather intelligence and talk with spies we had in other countries Forerunner to the CIA

27 How’d They Do It ??? Invisible Ink – written between the lines of an ordinary letter. Once heated, the words would appear. Codes/Ciphers – letters or numbers stand for other words Blind Drop – messages were left an agreed upon location Masks – a mask was worn to show the message

28 The War Deepens

29 Objective Identify major battle and struggles of Americans as they fight for independence

30 Redcoats Attack From Canada John Burgoyne plans 3 pronged attack a. He attacks from Montreal b. Howe moves up Hudson River from NYC c. St. Leger invades from Lake Ontario Howe never gets message – failure Burgoyne suffers many defeats Howe Burgoyne

31 Battle Of Saratoga France will not commit troops without a big victory Burgoyne’s troops were surrounded and he surrenders at Saratoga Benedict Arnold - hero

32 Winter At Valley Forge Lacked supplies food, coats, shirts, pants, and shoes ¼ of troops died Friedrich Von Steuben (Prussia) and Marquis de Lafayette (France) help train the troops Friedrich Von Steuben Marquis de Lafayette

33 Objective Identify major battles and struggles of Americans as they fight for independence.

34 Britain Focuses on the South Redcoats cannot defeat Washington in the north Focus attention on the south Spain helps Continental Army

35 Battle of Yorktown Gen. Cornwallis is losing in the south Retreats of the “safety” of Chesapeake Bay (Yorktown, Va)

36 Washington plans daring attack a. French navy block entrance to the Bay (no escape) b. Washington and others attack from land c. Cornwallis is cornered – surrenders Last major battle

37 Treaty of Paris, 1783 Acknowledged America’s independence Land claims stretched from Atlantic Ocean to Mississippi River a. 4 times the size of France b. 10 times the size of Britain

38 Effects of the Revolution Inspires other oppressed countries to rebel (France) King George III is discredited – he is a figurehead (just like British monarchs today) “Shot heard ‘round the world’.”

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