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Chapter 12 Democracy in the Age of Jackson

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1 Chapter 12 Democracy in the Age of Jackson
( ) (Textbook Pages )

2 Sectionalism Changes Politics
Election of 1824 The Democratic-Republican Party split by sectionalism

3 Adams Defeats Jackson in 1824
Jackson win popular vote No candidate wins the majority of the electoral votes. Clay new he couldn’t win so he threw his support to Adams. The House of Representatives named Adams president Jackson claims it was a “corrupt bargain”

4 Jackson Redefines “Democracy”
Jackson expands democracy by pushing for all white men to vote not just landowners. The idea of widening political power to more of the people and ensuring majority rule became known as Jacksonian Democracy.

5 Jackson wins in 1828 Victory for the common people
A new Political Era Begins Jackson looks to reform government Jackson replace public officials with his supporters This practice became known as the Spoils System.

6 Rising Sectional Differences
Country in conflict in 3 main sections West North South Disputed over 3 main economic issues The sale of public land in the West Federal Spending on internal improvements, such as roads and canals Rising Tariffs 6

7 Regional Interests Westerners Wanted Western Land sold Cheap
Supported federal spending for internal improvements Northeasterners Wanted western lands sold at higher prices Supported Federal Spending on internal improvements Supported High Tariffs Southerners Opposed federal spending on internal improvements Opposed rising tariffs. 7

8 Southerners against Tarrifs
Tariffs made foreign goods more expensive than American-made goods + North Southern planters relied on trading cotton in exchange for foreign manufactured goods. - South South against any government projects funded by tariffs. 8

9 Federal Government vs. the States
Debates over the Balance between Federal and State governments. Several supported States’ Rights – rights of the states to make decisions without interference from the federal government. VS. 9

10 The Nullification Crisis
1828 Congress passes bill that significantly raised tariffs on raw materials and manufactured goods. Southerners hated the tariff calling it Tariff of Abominations. Southerners felt that the economic interests of the Northeast were determining national policy. 10

11 The Nullification Crisis
South Carolina hit hard threatened to Secede. John C. Calhoun, Jacksons VP solution was the Doctrine of Nullification that said States had the right to nullify or reject any law they found to be unconstitutional. Believed Congress had no right to impose a tariff on that favored one section of the country over another. 11

12 Jackson and Calhoun become Enemies
“The Union – next to our liberty, the most dear; may we all remember that it can only be preserved by respecting the rights of States and distributing equally the benefits and burdens of the Union.” “Our Federal Union – must be preserved.” 12


14 Jackson’s Policy Toward Native Americans
During Jackson’s Presidency Native Americans were forced to live west of the Mississippi River.

15 Southeastern Tribes forced West
Most Dominant nation was the Cherokee Sequoya invented a written language for the Cherokee with hope that it would earn the respect of Whites through their civilization. Many whites didn’t want to live near them 2 choice for the tribes Assimilate or move.


17 The Native Americans wanted to live in peace with their white neighbors; however, the land was great for growing cotton. The Indians stood in the way of progress. Like earlier Presidents, Jackson sided with the white settlers urging the U.S. government to set lands aside across the Mississippi and forced the Indians to move there. Few Indians wanted to move there.

18 In 1830, Jackson pushed through the Indian Removal Act
In 1830, Jackson pushed through the Indian Removal Act. Under it, Native Americans were forced to sign treaties agreeing to move west of the Mississippi. The Cherokees held out the longest. In 1838, the United States Army forced them to leave at gunpoint. The Cherokees traveled hundreds of miles to lands they never seen before. They had little food or shelter. Thousands died during the march, mostly children and the elderly. The Cherokees’ long sorrowful journey west became known as the Trail of Tears. Get off my land!


20 In Florida the Seminole Indians resisted their removal
In Florida the Seminole Indians resisted their removal. They fought the U.S. Army in the Seminole War. The War lasted from In the end the Seminoles were defeated and were forced to move off their lands. One of the most important Seminole leaders was Osceola.

21 Prosperity and Panic After Jackson left office, his policies caused the economy to collapse and affected the next election. Many people wanted the government to step in and help. Jackson’s vice-president Martin Van Buren, disagreed.

22 Jackson Destroys the National Bank
Many law makers used the National bank for personal business and received loans Jackson afraid that Nicholas Biddle the Bank President could influence politics. To operate the bank needed a Charter – or a written grant from the federal government. Biddle asks congress to renew the charter. It passes.

23 War on the Bank Jackson Vetoes the Charter.
Jackson argues the bank was unconstitutional, the Supreme Court said it was not. Jackson moves all government fund to Sate banks. Biddle makes it harder for people to get money Eventually the Bank closes and Jackson wins but the economy will suffer for it.

24 Prosperity and Panic As a results of Jackson shifting the federal money to State Banks more loans were given out and people had prosperity. Problem occurs when banks issue too much paper money and the increased supply make the dollar worthless. This is called Inflation - or an increase in prices or the decrease in the value of money.

25 Panic of 1837 Van Buren becomes president in 1836
Economic downturn do to inflation To fight inflation land must be bought with gold or silver no paper money. Fear over depression leads to the Panic of 1837 Almost all factories in the East close. People become homeless.

26 Birth of the Whigs The Whig party is formed by Henry Clay and Daniel Webster. Whigs chose 1812 war hero William Henry Harrison and John Tyler as his running mate. Election of 1840 emphasized personalities rather than political issues. Harrison wins based on his war hero status and western frontier status. The West is now viewed as a major player in elections.

27 The End

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