3THE WEIMAR REPUBLICIn November of 1918, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated (died 1941).German leaders drafted a constitution in the city of Weimar (vy mahr).It created a democratic government known as the Weimar Republic.The constitution set up a parliamentary system led by a chancellor, or prime minister, who worked in conjunction with a president, a cabinet and the Reichstag (parliament).It gave women the vote and included a bill of rights.
4Trouble in the Weimar Republic Versailles Treaty – harsh conditions blamed on the “November Criminals” of the Weimar governmentMany small parties – which paralyzed the political process, making reform slowDepression: unemployment, debt, and hyperinflation
6A GRAPH SHOWING HYPERINFLATION of the DEUTSCHMARK 1918 to 1923
7Month Marks needed to buy one US dollar Year 1919 April 12 December 47 December471921November2631922July493August1,000October3,0007,0001923January17,00024,000353,0004,621,000September98,860,00025,260,000,0002,193,600,000,0004,200,000,000,000
8CHILDREN PLAYING WITH STACKS OF WORTHLESS DEUTSCHMARKS. One of the first problems that the Weimar Republic faced was Hyperinflation. Money became so worthless that children could play with stacks of it. People's savings were wiped out causing widespread discontent and civil unrest.
9THE NAZI PARTY National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) Nationalsozialistische Deutsche ArbeiterparteiFounded in 1919 as the German Workers PartyVeteran and malcontent, Adolf Hitler joined and quickly became a leader of the partyBrown Shirts (Storm Troopers) were used to terrorize and intimidate opponents(much like Mussolini’s Black Shirts)Were dissatisfied with the Weimar Government which they saw as weak and ineffective
12Attempted overthrow of the government in Bavaria, Germany BEER HALL PUTSCH – MUNICH 1923Attempted overthrow of the government in Bavaria, GermanyHitler wanted this to be like Mussolini’s March on Rome, but it failed miserablyHitler was arrested and sent to prison – it seemed as if his political career was ended
13Adolf Hitler in Landsberg prison Hitler's attempt to overthrow the government in November 1923, the so-called Beer Hall Putsch, led German authorities to try—unsuccessfully—to deport the Nazi leader to his native Austria. Hitler served only a short sentence for high treason; after his release he was prohibited from speaking at public gatherings in Bavaria until
15While in prison, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”) While in prison, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”). It would later become the basic book of Nazi goals and ideology.Mein Kampf reflected Hitler’s obsessions—extreme nationalism, racism, and anti-Semitism. Germans, he said, belonged to a superior “master race” of Aryans, or light-skinned Europeans, whose greatest enemies were the Jews. Hitler’s ideas were rooted in a long tradition of anti-Semitism. In the Middle Ages, Christians persecuted Jews because of their different beliefs. The rise of nationalism in the 1800s caused people to identify Jews as ethnic outsiders. Hitler viewed Jews not as members of a religion but as a separate race. (He defined a Jew as anyone with one Jewish grandparent.) Echoing a familiar right-wing theme, he blamed Germany’s defeat in World War I on a conspiracy of Marxists, Jews, corrupt politicians, and business leaders.In his recipe for revival, Hitler urged Germans everywhere to unite into one great nation. Germany must expand, he said, to gain Lebensraum (lay buns rowm), or living space, for its people. Slavs and other inferior races must bow to Aryan needs. To achieve its greatness, Germany needed a strong leader, or Führer (fyoo rur). Hitler was determined to become that leader.
16The Nazi Party gradually gains more Seats in the Reichstag. Although not a majority, President von Hindenburg cannot ignore the Nazis or the “little corporal” as he calls Hitler.Adolf Hitler after thesuccessful election in1930.
17January 30th of 1933: Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany January 30th of 1933: Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany. Paul Von Hindenburg tried to keep Hitler out of office. But Germany was tired of chaos, and opted for disaster in stead.
18REICHSTAG FIRE: February 27, 1933 This fire was orchestrated by Nazi Party members and blamed on the Communists.This helped solidify the power of the Nazis in the Government.
24Hermann Göring, Commander-in-Chief of the Luftwaffe, President of the Reichstag, Prime Minister of Prussia, Plenipotentiary for the Implementation of the Four Year (economic) Plan, and designated successor to Hitler.
32The autobahn freeway system quickly became a symbol of Nazi Germany The autobahn freeway system quickly became a symbol of Nazi Germany. Its construction was seen as a major element of Germany's economic resurgence under Hitler, and was compared with the projects of Roosevelt's New Deal.
34Adolf Hitler (shown left-under x) during World War I with fellow German soldiers. The dog had the name Fuchsl and was actually Hitler's pet during the war until it was stolen from him. (Photo credit: U.S. National Archives)