Presentation on theme: "In your notebook, RESPOND TO THE FOLLOWING IN 3-5 SENTENCES: What is one aspect of the John Adams video that you found to be most thought provoking/interesting?"— Presentation transcript:
In your notebook, RESPOND TO THE FOLLOWING IN 3-5 SENTENCES: What is one aspect of the John Adams video that you found to be most thought provoking/interesting? Why? WARM-UP
Who is the better prepared country for this war? What advantages do the Colonies have over England?
BRITISH tried to cut the colonies in half by taking New York, there by isolating the New England states. They push Washington & the Continental Army back across the Delaware River. BATTLE OF TRENTON : Washington attempts a surprise attack on the Hessians at Trenton on Christmas night. He is successful after attacking in the morning. Eight days later the continental army wins another battle at Princeton. BRITISH decide to take the capital, Philadelphia. The Continental Congress is forced to flee the city, & the British take control of the city. BRITISH, under Gen. Burgoyne, move down from Lake Champlain to meet up w/ other Brits at NYC. They are harassed along the way & lose several hundred men. CONTINENTAL Troops meet w/ Brits at Saratoga. The Brits are forced to surrender. The win at Saratoga will forge an alliance w/ France. France will recognize American independence & send much needed aid to the Americans. BATTLES
Europeans arrive in the colonies to give aid & advice to the struggling Continental Army. Friedich von Steuben: Prussian drill master, transformed colonials into effective army Marquis de Lafayette: Lobbied for French reinforcements & led a command BRITISH MOVE SOUTH: After Saratoga, the Brits move south & take Charles Town, SC. They also win against Nathaniel Greene at the Battle of Guilford County Courthouse (1781). However, Cornwallis lost 25% of his men there. Brits had early success in the south, however the tide of war would change dramatically in 1781. CONTINENTAL ARMY: has several victories in the south, finally defeating Cornwallis & the Brits at Yorktown. The Brits surrendered there, and peace talks began soon after. BATTLES
Negotiated by John Adams, Ben Franklin, and John Jay 3 most important things gained: United States gains Independence British troops to leave US soil United States gains land to the Mississippi River
North America was still shared with France (west) and Spain (south)
The Articles of Confederation was the constitution of the first government of the United States. It had been started back in 1777 in the Continental Congress, and finally approved by all the states in 1781. The United States was a Confederation: a loosely- held union with STRONG states and WEAK central government
GOVERNMENT Congress – Each State had one Vote. Powers of Congress 1. Make Laws 2. Declare War & Make Peace 3. Make Treaties & Alliances 4. Borrow Money 5. Maintain Army & Navy 6. Other Less Important Matters
1)Congress weak – Limited Powers (most needed 9 of 13 states to agree) 2)No Executive Branch – Enforce Laws 3)No Judicial Branch – Settle State Disputes 4)No Power to Tax 5)No Money = No Military 6)No Amendments – Needed Approval of all 13 States 7)Thirteen Tax and Trade Systems
Since the national government could not tax, and the national money was worthless, debt became a huge problem. Debt = owing money The biggest problem was that the soldiers who had fought the war, had not been paid, and they were mad.
British troops have not left US soil quite yet. French/Spanish will not allow use of Mississippi River. Debts contracted during the Revolutionary War have not been paid. Shay’s Rebellion. Economy is in very poor health.
Americans were afraid of a strong national government. After all, they had fought a war over it. So, the government they decided on was weak. The national government under the Articles did not have the power to tax or enforce laws. Those powers were left up to the states. The national government did have the power to wage war, but since they couldn’t tax, there was no way to pay for it. The government could also issue money, but the states didn’t have to use it. They had their own.
One of the things the new government was allowed to do was divide any new lands the United States acquired. (Or you could say taken. Most of the lands belonged to the Indians, but that didn’t stop anyone from taking them. Under the Northwest Ordinance, when 60,000 people lived in a territory, they could apply to become a state. Slavery was also outlawed, but runaway slaves were to be returned to their lawful “owners.” Freedom of religion and trial by jury were guaranteed.
The American Revolution ended in 1783 The money paid to the soldiers who had fought in the Revolution was virtually worthless. This was because the government was not allowed to raise taxes in the Articles of Confederation. As a result, the farmers were unable to pay their debts.
"I have been greatly abused, have been obliged to do more than my part in the war, been loaded with class rates, town rates, province rates, Continental rates and all rates... been pulled and hauled by sheriffs, constables and collectors, and had my cattle sold for less than they were worth... The great men are going to get all we have and I think it is time for us to rise and put a stop to it, and have no more courts, nor sheriffs, nor collectors nor lawyers.“ -Plough Jogger
The farmers were taken into court, then into jail, and their land was taken away from them. Most of the farmers were soldiers who had fought in the Revolution. Easy to see why they are angry! In 1786, an armed revolt by farmers against the state government took place. Led by Daniel Shays, the farmers began to forcibly prevent the courts from meeting so they couldn’t take anyone else’s land away or put them in jail. They attempted to take over a armory to collect weapons to overthrow the state gov’t. Early in 1787, the Governor sent 4,400 men against the rebels and the rebels were defeated. Shays and the other rebels were pardoned. (An official act of forgiveness)
Sam Adams felt rights should be suspended under rebellion in the US. Also, rebels should be executed. John Hancock was sympathetic to the rebels. John Adams recognized that the taxes were too heavy for the people. Jefferson thought the rebellion was good: "The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants. It is its natural manure.” Washington rose out of retirement to address the problems of the gov’t for fear that it was falling apart.
Shays’ Rebellion showed the leaders of America that the Articles of Confederation were too weak, and a stronger national government was needed.
A convention will be held in Philadelphia in 1787 to REFORM the gov’t. By the end of the convention, we will see the Articles tossed out completely and a NEW gov’t proposed for the nation.
Why might lacking an executive branch cause problems under the Articles of Confederation? Why are taxes necessary for a government? Why did Shay’s Rebellion start up? Who was right, the government or the rebels? State why. What are the pros and cons of a strong central government?