Presentation on theme: "The Framing of the Constitution. Problems with the A.O.C. 1.Funding veterans’ pensions 2.Promoting trade 3.Handling the Indian threat 4.Dealing with worthless."— Presentation transcript:
The Framing of the Constitution
Problems with the A.O.C. 1.Funding veterans’ pensions 2.Promoting trade 3.Handling the Indian threat 4.Dealing with worthless state money 5.Handling social unrest 6.Paying off debt (taxes) - internal tariffs
Advocates for Centralization 1.Society of Cincinnati - “ Newburgh Conspiracy ” 2.American manufacturers - tariffs 3.Merchants - uniform economic policy 4.Land speculators - Indian protection 5.Creditors - end states printing $ 6.Investors - fund the debt - taxes? 7.Large Property Owners - protection from mobs 8.Alexander Hamilton & James Madison
Annapolis Convention 1786 Alexander Hamilton proposes a convention to “strengthen” the A.O.C Shays’ Rebellion convinced Washington to support it - lead others to support the idea as well
Constitutional Convention Philadelphia, 1787
Founding Fathers 55 Delegates from all states except Rhode Island (Why?) Average age 44 (Franklin oldest at 81) Well educated wealthy property owners All white males George Washington chosen unanimously to lead Missing?
Divisions at the Convention 1.Small States vs. Large States 2.What about slavery? 3.How should slaves be considered in terms of population and taxation? 4.Centralization vs. State power
Federalists Lead by Hamilton, Franklin, Washington with support from Madison and John Jay Wrote Federalist Papers 85 Essays “Publius” Argued for strong central government Fear of Anarchy and chaos Fear of unchecked power of the masses
Antifederalists Supported a reformed Articles of Confederation Central government should have limited power Power should lie with the states and individuals Believed to represent the common man and as true defenders of the Revolution Constitution favored the elite in society Need for a Bill of Rights Lead by George Mason others not present including Thomas Jefferson & Patrick Henry George Mason Mr. “All Men Are Created Equal”
Virginia Plan Edmund Randolph & James Madison of Virginia (most populous state) Legislature with 2 Houses Lower based on population Upper elected by the lower house Why did small states reject this plan?
New Jersey Plan William Peterson of NJ One House based on equal representation for each state Similar to AOC with expanded powers to tax and regulate commerce
The Great Compromise Lead by Benjamin Franklin (7/2/1787) Lower House based on population Upper House 2 representatives from each state Slaves as 3/5 a person for population & taxation (“Three-Fifths Compromise”)
Other Agreements 1.“Commercial Compromise” - Regulate Trade but Couldn’t tax exports 2.Maximum of $10 duty per imported slave 3.The slavery issue couldn’t be decided for at least 20 years (Why?) 4.No set definition of citizenship or Bill of Rights
Separation of Powers Federalism - powers divided between federal, state, local gov. (Montesquieu) Checks and Balances (David Hume) - 3 branches of government check each other
The Document Mostly drafted by James Madison Question of Sovereignty - State vs. National? - power to the people Supreme law of the land - no state had power to defy Constitution Expanded power - to tax, regulate commerce, control currency, pass laws Art. I Sec. 8, Clause 18- “Necessary and Proper” clause?
Tyranny of the people? Some worried about protection from “Mob Rule” Electoral college Enlightened few would choose Only lower house (House of Representatives) would be elected directly by the people
Ratification 9 of 13 States needed to ratify Formed State conventions Federalists vs. Antifederalists