Presentation on theme: "Since the United States House of Representative's Committee on un-American Activities can find no evidence that Alger Hiss is not a communist, we conclude."— Presentation transcript:
Since the United States House of Representative's Committee on un-American Activities can find no evidence that Alger Hiss is not a communist, we conclude that he is.Alger Hiss
Argument From Ignorance X is false, because x has not been proven true. X is true, because x has not been proven false.
Global warming is real, since my uncle, who is a physician, says the evidence is decisive and that within the next 4 years the polar ice caps will be entirely melted.
Appeal to Inappropriate authority
Jack Linder, a bleeding-heart liberal, is the community activist against referendum initiative 103. Linder is such a far-left liberal that nothing in the referendum should be approved by the voters.
Ad hominem/ Attacking the person (abusive or circumstantial)
The United States Flag is a symbol of our national heritage and pride, therefore, it should be protected from burning by law.
Ad populum or Appeal to tradition
The crime rate in Tucson went up as soon as we stopped teaching Hispanic children English. Therefore, in order to bring the crime rate down, we must resume teaching Hispanic children English.
False Cause (post hoc ergo propter hoc)
All of us cannot be famous, because all of us cannot be well- known.
Petitio Principii (begging the question or circular reasoning)
The two men in the matching green suits that I met at the Star Trek Convention in Las Vegas had a terrible fear of cats. I remember their saying they were from Delaware. I've never met anyone else from Delaware, so I suppose everyone there has a terrible fear of cats.
Unrepresentative Sample or hasty generalization
If you are not with us, then you are against us. John is against us. Therefore John is not with us.
Affirming the consequent
When my friend visited Tucson this time last year, all she could talk about was how hot it was. She refuses to come back to Tucson again, saying the heat was too much the first time, it will be too much the second time too.
My political opponents state that my advisors are executives in a company that receives several thousands of dollars from Freddy Mack and Fannie May – but they have political advisors from the housing sector too, hence we can ignore what they say.
Tu quoque (you too)
After graduating from Emory University, top student and athlete Christopher McCandless abandoned his possessions, gave his entire $24,000 savings account to charity and hitchhiked to Alaska to live in the wilderness. There he found that nature was kind and benevolent, unlike other humans that lived in the rat race of capitalism. Hence, since nature is so kind and benevolent, better to live in nature than in a city.
Anthropomorphic projection (the quality of kindness and benevolence are projected on nature)
Either the Large Hadron Collider will encounter the Higgs boson within 2 years, or the Higgs boson does not exist. The Higgs boson was found to exist Therefore it was found by the Large Hadron Collider
False Dichotomy (black-white fallacy)
If the airport gets a bomb threat, then my flight will be delayed. The airport did not receive a bomb threat. Therefore my flight was not delayed.
Denying the Antecedent
Karl Marx wrote the essay, “Alienated labor” found in the Parisian manuscripts. But he was also the author of Capital. And many consider him to be the father of communism. And we all know how failed an economic and political system communism turned out to be. Hence whatever he says in “Alienated labor” is worthless.
Poisoning the Well (ad hominem circumstantial)
It is false that no automobiles can be easily converted to run on ethanol. Hence, they all can.
Mary has worked in a clinic for drug abuse, and has seen so many people’s lives ruined by drug abuse. Hence if you turn your back on your son’s pot smoking, his life is headed for certain ruin.
The theory of evolution states that humans are descended from monkeys. But monkeys are still around, and so are humans, hence evolution is absurd.
Accugen baby gender mender has not been shown to be able to detect the gender of your baby, hence we conclude that it is a useless device.
Appeal to ignorance.
It makes no difference if General Pinochet was guilty of terrible crimes against humanity. The man is eighty years old and in frail health, so he should not be made to stand trial.
Ad misericordium (appeal to pity)
Cherry swears by her horoscope. She has used it for years, and can name a score of times where her horoscope was dead on. Hence, since it works for Cherry, it is a good idea to pay attention to the horoscopes she reads.