Presentation on theme: "Pollution – the addition of matter/energy to a natural/artificial environments in amounts or at rates that causes undesired alteration to the environment."— Presentation transcript:
Pollution – the addition of matter/energy to a natural/artificial environments in amounts or at rates that causes undesired alteration to the environment. Therefore pollution can refer to “excesses” such as wastes. Waste is anything considered “worthless,” or what one cannot readily use -2000lbs/day in U.S. Pollution artificial Light, noise, Heat, water, Air, soil Natural Soil, air, and water
NATURAL POLLUTION - Mount St Helens
POLLUTION PROPERTIES OF POLLUTANTS PERSISTENCE – length of time pollutants take before the degrade into harmless components. Biodegradable materials- short persistence. RESIDENCE TIME – the time it takes for pollutants to move through an environment. Persistent pollutants do more damage. HAZARDOUS – reactivity, ignitability, corrosivity, or toxicity are the 4 hazardous qualities of pollutants.
ProductTime to biodegrade CottonCotton ragsrags1-5 months Paper2-5 months Rope3-14 months Orange peels6 months WoolWool socks1 to 5 years CigaretteCigarette filters1 to 12 years Plastic coated paper milk cartonsmilkcartons5 years LeatherLeather shoesshoes25 to 40 years NylonNylon fabric30 to 40 years Tin cans50 to 100 years AluminumAluminum cans80 to 100 years Plastic bags450 years Plastic 6-pack holder rings6-pack450 years GlassGlass bottlesbottles1 million years Plastic bottlesForever
SEDIMENT POLLUTION EROSION is a natural process that produces and moves sediment in the environment. It becomes a pollutant through human activities that exposes the land surface to rapid erosion: FARMING, CONSTRUCTION, MINING. DAMAGE includes clogging gills, and killing aquatic benthic animals like corals/fish; eutrophication (reduced dissolved oxygen); flooding (reducing channel size).
WATER POLLUTION – is closely associated with water quality. Water quality terms include freshwater, saline water, brackish water, black water, grey water, and potable water. Potable water- water suitable for cooking and drinking– water quality determines its intended use. Human potable water may differ from potable water for farm animals. Such water must be odorless, tasteless, colorless, non- corrosive, and should not contain toxic substances. EPA set national potable water standards known as MCLs – primary (protects human health, legally enforced) vs secondary (cosmetic properties, not legally enforced).
WATER POLLUTION SOURCES CHEMICAL – AGRICULTURE – DOMESTIC – MINING/CONSTRUCTI ON – POWER PLANTS – FOOD PROCESSING Hazardous/toxic wastes; surface and groundwater Sediments, chemicals. Sewage, landfills, air pollutants (acids,ozone). Sediment, acid drainage, air pollutants (acid, dust). Radiation, heat, air pollutants. Nutrient pollutants.
GROUNDWATER POLLUTION GW is now 53% US potable water source. But 25% GW in US is polluted. More protected than surface water. But once polluted it is hard to reclaim – GW moves very slowly and DO content is low. MAJOR SOURCES OF GW POLLUTION: Septic tanks, USTs, saltwater, landfills, spills, waste disposal ponds, deep injection wells, and agriculture.
MARINE WATER POLLUTION Mainly coastal waters – why? Sources are: RUNOFF (44%) – manure, oil spills, raw sewage. ATMOSPHERE (33%) –mercury, acid deposition. DIRECT DUMPING (22%) – manure, raw sewage (7200 beach closures in US, 1998), oil spills/tanker flushing (marine food contamination), and sludge dumping.