Presentation on theme: "Great Grains! Jessica Nickels, MS, RD/LD 2006. Grains Grains are the staple of diets throughout the world Fad diets have come and gone, grains were given."— Presentation transcript:
Grains Grains are the staple of diets throughout the world Fad diets have come and gone, grains were given a bad name claiming “bread is fattening” At one time, pastas, rice, and tortillas were only served in ethnic restaurants and not at home at the dinner table. Today, they have moved in to the mainstream of our cuisine
Anatomy of a Grain Most commonly consumed grain in the US is wheat In general, the part that we eat is the kernel or the berry This is the seed from which the plant grows Each kernel has 3 parts: Endosperm Bran germ
Anatomy of a Grain Endosperm Makes up about 83% of the weight Source of white flour Contains greatest amount of protein, CHO, Fe, B-vitamins (riboflavin, niacin, thiamin) Source of soluble fiber
Anatomy of a Grain Bran Makes up about 14.5% of weight Included in whole wheat flour Can be brought separately and added to products Contains small amount of protein, large amount of B-vitamins, trace minerals, and dietary fiber (mostly insoluble)
Anatomy of a Grain Germ Makes up 2.5% of weight Embryo or sprouting section of seed Often separated from flour in milling process because of the fat it contains, which can limit flour’s shelf-life Contains minimal quantities of high quality protein, but a good share of trace minerals and b-vitamins Wheat germ is part of whole wheat flour and can be purchased separately
Types of Grains Amaranth Tall willowy plant similar in height to corn with large shaggy head containing thousands of tiny seeds Seed can be milled into a whole grain flour or puffed like rice or corn Commonly eaten in Africa
Types of Grains Barley Very versatile Pearl barley, which is whole grain with hull and bran removed, is often used in soups Can be milled into flour and is used in baked products and breakfast cereals High in fiber
Types of Grains Buckwheat Neither wheat nor cereal grain Seed from the Fagopyrum family of herbs Due to unique flavor, it is often ground and used to replace part of the wheat flour in pancake mixes Kasha is a word commonly used to describe buckwheat groats, a Russian dish
Types of Grains Couscous Pasta made from precooked semolina wheat and most commonly eaten in North African countries Can be served hot or cold Millet Delicate, round grain that is yellow in color Cooks like rice but lighter with nutty flavor Can be eaten as whole grain or husked Often added to bread making
Types of Grains Oats Oatmeal is most familiar form Made by rolling the groats (oats with hulls removed) to form flakes Regular and quick cooking differ in thickness of flakes Oat bran is the envelope of the groat High in soluble fiber
Types of Grains Potato flour Actually a root but share many nutrients with grains Potato flour made from cooked potatoes that have been dried and ground Often used in breads or rolls Potato dumplings or “gnocchi” is another way to serve potatoes as a “grain”
Types of Grains Quinoa Small round seed that can come in many colors Not a grain, fruit of an annual herb Grown in the mountainous regions of Peru and Bolivia for 3000 years Can be cooked like rice or ground into flour and used for baked goods
Types of Grains Rice Most commonly eaten grain in the world Usually starchy endosperm of the grain: hull and bran have been removed In US, white rice is enriched with thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron Enriched rice should not be rinsed before cooking, or the added vitamins and minerals will be washed away Brown rice is grain from which only the hull has been removed Instant rice has been precooked and dried Rice flour is made from brown or white rice and is free of gluten
Types of Grains Rye Can be eaten like rice but takes longer to cook Whole rye can be used in soups Rye flour contains gluten Sorghum Tropical grass Small amounts added to crackers and other snack food and can be made into syrup
Types of Grains Soy High in protein and B vitamins Nutty texture and taste Spelt Predecessor to wheat and has very strong hull that is difficult to remove when milling Usually available as flour
Types of Grains Teff Smallest grain in the world 150 teff grains weigh the same as one grain of wheat Available as whole grain or flour Used as thickener
Types of Grains Triticale Hybrid grain created from crossing wheat and rye Can be cooked as whole grain, ground into flour, or processed into cereal flakes
Types of Grains Wheat The “Staff of Life” Comes in several varieties: –Durum – used to make pasta and couscous –Bulgar – precooked and can be used in place of rice –Cracked – similar to bulgar but not precooked –Farina – coarsely ground and primary ingredient in hot cereals
Eat More Grains! Eat 6 oz everyday from the grain group At least 3 of the 6 oz should be whole grain breads, cereals, pasta, crackers, or rice everyday What to Look for on the Food Label: Choose foods that name one of the following whole-grain ingredients first on the label’s ingredient list: “brown rice” “whole-grain corn” “oatmeal” “bulgur”“whole oats” “whole wheat” “graham flour”“whole rye” “wild rice” –Foods labeled with the words “multi-grain,” “stone-ground,” “100% wheat,” “cracked wheat,” “seven-grain,” or “bran” are usually not whole- grain products. –Color is not an indication of a whole grain. Bread can be brown because of molasses or other added ingredients. Read the ingredient list to see if it is a whole grain.
Great Grain Nutrients CHO Body’s preferred fuel source On the food label, dietary fiber and sugars are listed below CHO –Why don’t they always equal the total CHO? »Missing CHO are the complex carbs, the longer, branched chains of sugar molecule
Great Grain Nutrients Fiber –Insoluble: Adds bulk to diets by filling us up and preventing overeating and obesity Adds “bulk” to fecal matter, increasing clearance time and decreasing risk of colon cancer Does not separate in water and “passes” almost completely in tact Found in less processed grain foods, such as whole grains Recommended to eat 20-35 grams of fiber each day but most Americans eat about 12 grams Examples: fruit skins, whole wheat products, nuts & seeds
Great Grain Nutrients Fiber –Soluble: May reduce blood cholesterol levels and help reduce heart disease risk Slows stomach emptying which is beneficial in controlling blood sugar separates in water and binds with fatty acids during digestion Examples: dried beans and peas, flax, carrots
Great Grain Nutrients Protein Grains are great sources – spaghetti has about 7 grams per serving Proteins are not “complete” which means they are missing one or more amino acids Only animal products are complete Vitamins and Minerals Many V&Ms found are important for converting food into energy, building tissues, and repairing cells Some nutrients are found naturally in grains and some are added during fortification Thiamin helps the body use the energy it gets Riboflavin and niacin help body use protein to build new cells and tissue
Grains for Health Heart Health – a diet low in fat and high in soluble fiber can help reduce the risk of heart disease Cell health – grains high in insoluble fiber can reduce the risk of colon cancer Healthy weight – A diet high in grains can help maintain a healthy weight.
Grains for Sports Energy – carbs are the bodies preferred sense of energy –Night before an event, it is best to eat a meal high in carbs. –This will fill up the muscles and liver with stored glycogen which can be used as energy the next day. –Pre-game meal – eat a high carb meal providing 300-1000 calories, 2-4 hours before the competition to top off your glycogen stores and prevent hunger during the event
Grains for Sports After your workout – eating a high carb meal after is just as important as before to help replenish your glycogen stores –Sports drinks like Gatorade are high in carbs and can help replenish lost fluid and used glycogen stores but no more effectively than water and eating a high carb snack
Grains for Sports Carb Loading: Practiced by some athletes involve din endurance sports One regimen includes a gradual increase in dietary carbs beginning 6 days before competition CHO intake starts at ~45% of intake and on final day is at ~ 65-75% intake One drawback is that additional water weight is stored in the muscle CHO loading may improve performance in marathons, long-distance swimming, tournament play, and triathlons but not in most single events
Grains for Weight Loss Myth #1: Eating bread will make you gain weight.
Grains for Weight Loss Myth #1: Eating bread will make you gain weight. FALSE: Most calories in grain products come from CHO. If you are active, your body uses CHA as its primary source of fuel Fat is more easily stored as fat and less easily burned during activity
Grains for Weight Loss Myth #2: Diet bread helps you lose weight.
Grains for Weight Loss Myth #2: Diet bread helps you lose weight. FALSE – Diet bread is just regular bread that contains more air, sometimes more fiber, and is sliced extra thin. Although you will save calories, many more calories can be saved by skipping high-fat foods.
Grains for Weight Loss Myth #3: White bread and white rice are worthless and filled with empty calories
Grains for Weight Loss Myth #3: White bread and white rice are worthless and filled with empty calories. –FALSE Even though whole grains high slightly more nutritional value than white counterparts, thanks to fortification, are still healthy and contain nutrients. The one down fall is that white bread and rice is low in fiber.
Grains for Weight Loss Myth #4: Pita bread is better to eat than regular bread.
Grains for Weight Loss Myth #4: Pita bread is better to eat than regular bread. –False Pita bread is low in fat, but so are most breads Pita bread offers no healthy advantages
Grains for Weight Loss Myth #5: all grain products are created equal.
Grains for Weight Loss Myth #5: all grain products are created equal. –False After comparing all breads we see that there is a difference between whole wheat, white, and pita bread even though they are not a big difference. Baked goods are usually higher in fat than a plain loaf of bread and not all cereals are healthy even though they are made of grains.