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LECTURE 1.2. LECTURE OUTLINE Weekly reading Weekly reading Prototype Practice Quiz 1: Feedback Prototype Practice Quiz 1: Feedback Assignment II Assignment.

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Presentation on theme: "LECTURE 1.2. LECTURE OUTLINE Weekly reading Weekly reading Prototype Practice Quiz 1: Feedback Prototype Practice Quiz 1: Feedback Assignment II Assignment."— Presentation transcript:

1 LECTURE 1.2

2 LECTURE OUTLINE Weekly reading Weekly reading Prototype Practice Quiz 1: Feedback Prototype Practice Quiz 1: Feedback Assignment II Assignment II

3 READING FOR NEXT MONDAY’S PRACTICE QUIZ Chapter 3: Chapter 3: Chapter 3 introduces you to "The Materials Science Tetrahedron", the "central paradigm of Materials Science". The Tetrahedron has four "vertices": Processing Structure Properties Performance Chapter 3 introduces you to "The Materials Science Tetrahedron", the "central paradigm of Materials Science". The Tetrahedron has four "vertices": Processing Structure Properties Performance It is the interplay between these four vertices that defines the science of materials. It is the interplay between these four vertices that defines the science of materials.

4 READING FOR NEXT MONDAY’S PRACTICE QUIZ The chapter begins by differentiating between physical and chemical PROCESSING, and then introduces the hierarchical levels of STRUCTURE, from the macroscopic to the atomic. The chapter begins by differentiating between physical and chemical PROCESSING, and then introduces the hierarchical levels of STRUCTURE, from the macroscopic to the atomic. PROPERTIES are introduced via "Mohs’ Hardness", the concepts of Stress and Strain, and Archimedes' experiment with Density or Specific Gravity. PROPERTIES are introduced via "Mohs’ Hardness", the concepts of Stress and Strain, and Archimedes' experiment with Density or Specific Gravity. The PERFORMANCE of a material is illustrated with respect to a current-generation aerospace material; the aluminum-lithium alloys. The PERFORMANCE of a material is illustrated with respect to a current-generation aerospace material; the aluminum-lithium alloys.

5 READING FOR NEXT MONDAY’S PRACTICE QUIZ Chapter 3 also introduces you (or re-introduces you) to the scientific notation for handling extremely large and extremely small numbers, and finally, it in this chapter where we'll also begin to work with graphically plotted and represented data. Chapter 3 also introduces you (or re-introduces you) to the scientific notation for handling extremely large and extremely small numbers, and finally, it in this chapter where we'll also begin to work with graphically plotted and represented data.

6 UNIT 1 PRACTICE QUIZ: FEEDBACK

7 UNIT 1 PRACTICE QUIZ: DATA Question # Percent Correct Quiz Average: 71%

8 WHAT IS A METAL, A POLYMER, A CERAMIC? Magnesium Oxide (MgO) is a: Metal Ceramic Polymer

9 A METAL A metal is “lustrous”, “ductile”, “malleable”! A metal is “lustrous”, “ductile”, “malleable”! Examples Examples Copper Copper Brass (A copper-zinc alloy) Brass (A copper-zinc alloy) Steel (An iron-carbon alloy) Steel (An iron-carbon alloy) Gold Gold Silver Silver

10 A POLYMER A polymer is a long chain, organic molecule. A polymer is a long chain, organic molecule. Polymers are also called “plastics”. Polymers are also called “plastics”. An organic material is carbonaceous, or carbon-containing. An organic material is carbonaceous, or carbon-containing. HOWEVER, THE FOLLOWING MATERIALS ARE DEEMED TO BE INORGANIC, EVEN THOUGH THEY ARE CARBONACEOUS! HOWEVER, THE FOLLOWING MATERIALS ARE DEEMED TO BE INORGANIC, EVEN THOUGH THEY ARE CARBONACEOUS!

11 INORGANIC, CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS The polymorphs of Carbon: The polymorphs of Carbon: Diamond Diamond Graphite Graphite The oxides of carbon The oxides of carbon Carbon Monoxide (CO) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 )

12 INORGANIC, CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS The Carbonates The Carbonates Calcium Carbonate/Calcite (CaCO 3 ) Calcium Carbonate/Calcite (CaCO 3 ) Malachite (Cu 2 (CO 3 ) 2 (OH) 2 ) Malachite (Cu 2 (CO 3 ) 2 (OH) 2 ) SO HOW DO WE CLASSIFY SO HOW DO WE CLASSIFY Calcite? Calcite? Malachite? Malachite?

13 CERAMICS If they are inorganic, and non-metallic, they are ceramics! If they are inorganic, and non-metallic, they are ceramics!

14 WRITING TO SPECIFICATION II A guide to grading your own, and other peoples’ writing

15 THE ESSAY The essay is to be written on “The Structure of _______.” The example is the structure of oxygen. The essay is to be written on “The Structure of _______.” The example is the structure of oxygen. The text of the essay should be at least 200 words. The text of the essay should be at least 200 words. The essay should be written from two independent sources, which must be clearly identified. The essay should be written from two independent sources, which must be clearly identified.

16 WRITING TO SPECIFICATION II: THE REFERENCES [1] WebElements TM, the periodic tale on the WWW. Mark Winter: The University of Sheffield and WebElement Ltd., UK © Mark Winter, Accessed 1/29/2007 /text/O/key.html /text/O/key.html /text/O/key.html /text/O/key.html [2] “Oxygen”. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Licensed to the public under the GNU Free Documentation License. Page last modified Jan.29,

17 THE “BAD ESSAY” (Calibration Essay #2): THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 1. Does the first sentence of the essay accurately introduce and/or reflect the subject matter of the essay? 1. Does the first sentence of the essay accurately introduce and/or reflect the subject matter of the essay? No. The first sentence: “ is irrelevant to an essay that is describing structure. It might be relevant if the essay were discussing processing. No. The first sentence: “There is no need to make oxygen in the laboratory because it is readily available commercially or through air liquefaction plants.”, is irrelevant to an essay that is describing structure. It might be relevant if the essay were discussing processing.

18 QUESTION 1 CONT. The first sentence is also an uncomfortably close paraphrase of ref [1], vide: The first sentence is also an uncomfortably close paraphrase of ref [1], vide: “There is not normally any need ot (sic) make oxygen in the laboratory as it is readily available commercially or through in-house air liquefaction plants.”

19 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 2. Is the text grammatically correct, properly punctuated and free of spelling/typographical errors? 2. Is the text grammatically correct, properly punctuated and free of spelling/typographical errors? Yes. The style is poor but the mechanics appear to be OK Yes. The style is poor but the mechanics appear to be OK

20 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 3. Is the essay free of inconsequential verbiage? 3. Is the essay free of inconsequential verbiage? No. The second sentence begins with: “In fact…” The phrase “In fact…”, is meaningless: either oxygen is, or is not the most abundant terrestrial element (it is). In sentence 4, the phrase “… not what the atom of oxygen “looks like”” is unnecessary; earlier in the same sentence, the figure is described as a “… schematic representation”. No. The second sentence begins with: “In fact…” The phrase “In fact…”, is meaningless: either oxygen is, or is not the most abundant terrestrial element (it is). In sentence 4, the phrase “… not what the atom of oxygen “looks like”” is unnecessary; earlier in the same sentence, the figure is described as a “… schematic representation”.

21 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. In addition, the phrase “not what the atom of oxygen "looks like".”, is a direct quote from ref. [1], and is plagiarism. In addition, the phrase “not what the atom of oxygen "looks like".”, is a direct quote from ref. [1], and is plagiarism.

22 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 4. Is the essay free from colloquialisms: words or phrases that are part of the vernacular? 4. Is the essay free from colloquialisms: words or phrases that are part of the vernacular? Yes. A borderline yes! The phrase “In fact…” is colloquial, and should not be used in formal writing. Yes. A borderline yes! The phrase “In fact…” is colloquial, and should not be used in formal writing.

23 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 5. Is the essay free from hyperbole, or exaggeration? 5. Is the essay free from hyperbole, or exaggeration? Yes. Yes.

24 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 6. Is each sentence, free of non-sequiturs, e.g., does the second part of a sentence bear a relationship to the first part? 6. Is each sentence, free of non-sequiturs, e.g., does the second part of a sentence bear a relationship to the first part? No. The third sentence, first paragraph: “It has an atomic number of eight, hence 8 protons and 8 neutrons”, is nonsense. The atomic number cannot be used to determine the number of neutrons. No. The third sentence, first paragraph: “It has an atomic number of eight, hence 8 protons and 8 neutrons”, is nonsense. The atomic number cannot be used to determine the number of neutrons.

25 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. The sentence, sandwiched between the two figures: “Oxygen is a gas with a monoclinic crystal structure…” is also a classic non-sequitur: a gas cannot be crystalline. The sentence, sandwiched between the two figures: “Oxygen is a gas with a monoclinic crystal structure…” is also a classic non-sequitur: a gas cannot be crystalline.

26 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 7. Does the essay describe the electronic structure of the material? 7. Does the essay describe the electronic structure of the material? Yes. The description: “ is meager and just barely sufficient. Yes. The description: “In a neutral atom, it has eight electrons orbiting the nucleus as shown in the Figure below…”, is meager and just barely sufficient.

27 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 8. Is the nuclear structure discussed, e.g., are isotopes identified, and/or listed? 8. Is the nuclear structure discussed, e.g., are isotopes identified, and/or listed? Yes. The last sentence of the first paragraph: “ mentions isotopes, and a list is provided in the table; however, the latter is not referred to in the text. Yes. The last sentence of the first paragraph: “Oxygen has three naturally occurring isotopes.”, mentions isotopes, and a list is provided in the table; however, the latter is not referred to in the text.

28 USE OF TABULAR MATERIAL If you present tabular material, make sure that either: If you present tabular material, make sure that either: the data are self-explanatory, or; the data are self-explanatory, or; the data are explained in the text. the data are explained in the text.

29 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 9. Does the essay define/describe the nature of the chemical bonds in the material? 9. Does the essay define/describe the nature of the chemical bonds in the material? No. No.

30 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 10. Does the essay state whether the material is crystalline or amorphous? 10. Does the essay state whether the material is crystalline or amorphous? No. Nowhere is it explicitly stated that oxygen is crystalline. No. Nowhere is it explicitly stated that oxygen is crystalline.

31 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 11. If the material is crystalline, is the crystal structure of the material clearly stated? If the material is amorphous, is the term “amorphous” clearly defined? 11. If the material is crystalline, is the crystal structure of the material clearly stated? If the material is amorphous, is the term “amorphous” clearly defined? Yes. It is stated that “Oxygen is a gas with a monoclinic crystal structure…”, which is a non-sequitur. A list of meaningless parameters, such as “Space group” is also provided, but not mentioned in the text. Yes. It is stated that “Oxygen is a gas with a monoclinic crystal structure…”, which is a non-sequitur. A list of meaningless parameters, such as “Space group” is also provided, but not mentioned in the text.

32 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 12. Is the content presented in a logical fashion, Does one sentence flow naturally from the one preceding? 12. Is the content presented in a logical fashion, Does one sentence flow naturally from the one preceding? No. The essay begins with a statement about processing, gives some garbled structural information and finishes by listing several oxygen-bearing compounds. No. The essay begins with a statement about processing, gives some garbled structural information and finishes by listing several oxygen-bearing compounds.

33 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 13. Is the essay free of scientific errors? 13. Is the essay free of scientific errors? Yes. Something must be right! Yes. Something must be right!

34 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 14. Are the source materials correctly, and adequately cited in the text? 14. Are the source materials correctly, and adequately cited in the text? No. The source materials are not cited at all. Hence, the essay is plagiaristic. The last paragraph is virtually a direct quote from ref [2] (see next slide) The figures and tables are copied directly from ref [1]. No. The source materials are not cited at all. Hence, the essay is plagiaristic. The last paragraph is virtually a direct quote from ref [2] (see next slide) The figures and tables are copied directly from ref [1].

35 COMPARE THE FIRST PARAGRAPH (FROM WIKIPEDIA), WITH THE SECOND (FROM THE ESSAY) The most familiar of oxygen compounds is water. Due to its electronegativity, oxygen forms chemical bonds with almost all other elements hence the original definition of oxidation. The only elements known to escape the possibility of oxidation are a few of the noble gases, and fluorine. Other than water (H2O), well known examples include compounds of carbon and oxygen, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), alcohols (R-OH), carbonyls, (R-CO-H or R- CO-R)), and carboxylic acids (R-COOH). The most familiar of oxygen compounds is water. Due to its electronegativity, oxygen forms chemical bonds with almost all other elements hence the original definition of oxidation. The only elements known to escape the possibility of oxidation are a few of the noble gases, and fluorine. Other than water (H2O), well known examples include compounds of carbon and oxygen, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), alcohols (R-OH), carbonyls, (R-CO-H or R- CO-R)), and carboxylic acids (R-COOH).water electronegativitychemical bondsoxidationfluorine carbon dioxidealcoholscarbonylscarboxylic acidswater electronegativitychemical bondsoxidationfluorine carbon dioxidealcoholscarbonylscarboxylic acids water chemical bonds carbon dioxidealcoholscarbonyls carboxylic acids The most familiar of oxygen compounds is water. Oxygen forms chemical bonds with almost all other elements. Well known examples include compounds of carbon and oxygen, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), alcohols (R-OH), carbonyls, (R-CO-H or R- CO-R)), and carboxylic acids (R-COOH). water chemical bonds carbon dioxidealcoholscarbonyls carboxylic acidswater chemical bonds carbon dioxidealcoholscarbonylscarboxylic acids

36 PLAGIARISM: (cont’d) This is a particularly egregious example of plagiarism, as the author has deliberately tried to hide the fact, by omitting parts of the original. This is a particularly egregious example of plagiarism, as the author has deliberately tried to hide the fact, by omitting parts of the original.

37 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 15. Are the source materials listed appropriately, as either footnotes, or at the end of the essay? 15. Are the source materials listed appropriately, as either footnotes, or at the end of the essay? Yes. Yes.

38 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 16. Is the text of the essay clearly the work of the author, i.e., is it free of plagiarism? 16. Is the text of the essay clearly the work of the author, i.e., is it free of plagiarism? Yes Yes No No The author is guilty of plagiarism, for the reasons enumerated in the answers to questions 3 and 14. The author is guilty of plagiarism, for the reasons enumerated in the answers to questions 3 and 14.

39 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 17. If graphics (figures) and/or tabular materials are used, are they referred to adequately in the text? 17. If graphics (figures) and/or tabular materials are used, are they referred to adequately in the text? No. The figures are only alluded to using the phrase “as shown below”. The figures should be explicitly referenced in, and described by the text. No. The figures are only alluded to using the phrase “as shown below”. The figures should be explicitly referenced in, and described by the text. The tabular material is not referred to at all, making the information worthless. This is especially true for the data on “Nuclear spin” and Magnetic moment”! What do these terms mean? The tabular material is not referred to at all, making the information worthless. This is especially true for the data on “Nuclear spin” and Magnetic moment”! What do these terms mean?

40 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 18. If graphics are used, are they accompanied by figure captions? Is the source of the graphics acknowledged? 18. If graphics are used, are they accompanied by figure captions? Is the source of the graphics acknowledged? There are neither figure numbers, nor captions. Figures lose much of their impact in the absence of captions There is no acknowledgment regarding the source of the figures (-2): this is plagiarism. There are neither figure numbers, nor captions. Figures lose much of their impact in the absence of captions There is no acknowledgment regarding the source of the figures (-2): this is plagiarism.

41 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 19. If graphics are used, are they numbered consecutively? 19. If graphics are used, are they numbered consecutively? No. There are neither figure numbers, nor captions. No. There are neither figure numbers, nor captions.

42 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 20. If tables are used, does a table number accompany them? 20. If tables are used, does a table number accompany them? No. The table is not identified at all! No. The table is not identified at all!

43 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 21. If tables are used, are they accompanied by a table heading? Is/are the source(s) of the tabular material acknowledged? If tables are not used, score a zero. 21. If tables are used, are they accompanied by a table heading? Is/are the source(s) of the tabular material acknowledged? If tables are not used, score a zero. No. A table headings allow the reader to gauge the content of the table. The lacck of a cvitation is plagiaristic. No. A table headings allow the reader to gauge the content of the table. The lacck of a cvitation is plagiaristic.

44 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 22. Is the essay formatted for ease in reading and comprehension? 22. Is the essay formatted for ease in reading and comprehension? No. Figures, tables and text are all mixed together, making it difficult to “navigate” through the essay. The table is not even on a single page! No. Figures, tables and text are all mixed together, making it difficult to “navigate” through the essay. The table is not even on a single page!

45 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 23. Is the text of the required length (200 words minimum)? 23. Is the text of the required length (200 words minimum)? No. By my count, the word total (text only) is 138 No. By my count, the word total (text only) is 138

46 THE “BAD ESSAY”: THE GRADING QUESTIONS, AND FEEDBACK. 24. Is the text single-spaced, Times, 12 point? 24. Is the text single-spaced, Times, 12 point? Yes. Yes.

47 QUALITATIVE RANK The essay is an embarrassment: the phrase, “… not what the atom of oxygen “looks like”, is close to a direct quote from ref [1] and is plagiarism. The last paragraph is taken, virtually verbatim from ref [2]. The source for the figures and tables is not cited, and the lack of any description in the text makes their inclusion worthless. No matter what qualities the essay might possess, they are buried under the weight of academic dishonesty. The essay is an embarrassment: the phrase, “… not what the atom of oxygen “looks like”, is close to a direct quote from ref [1] and is plagiarism. The last paragraph is taken, virtually verbatim from ref [2]. The source for the figures and tables is not cited, and the lack of any description in the text makes their inclusion worthless. No matter what qualities the essay might possess, they are buried under the weight of academic dishonesty.


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