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DISCOVERIES Teaching collocations through corpus concordance lines.

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1 DISCOVERIES Teaching collocations through corpus concordance lines

2 What’s this all about? corpus, pl. corpora – in linguistics, a body of written and spoken texts, now in electronic form, assumed to be representative of a language and used for lexical, grammatical, or other linguistic analysis. concordances – instances from the corpus that contain a given word or pattern (‘node’) in context (i.e. with a predefined number of words to the left and right).

3 Concordance lines

4 Concordancing i.e. electronically looking into a corpus, and finding instances that match a query take __ consideration A) in B) into C) under D) by

5 Can’t dictionaries do that equally well? Dictionaries tend to focus on the word with little reference to its environment. Dictionaries tend to be prescriptive rather than descriptive. “Is that what people really say?”

6 The British National Corpus www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk The BYU Corpus of American English www.americancorpus.org  WordSmith Tools www.lexically.net/downloads/version5/HTML /index.html

7 The Collins WordbanksOnline English corpus http://www.collins.co.uk/corpus/CorpusSearch.aspx 56 million words of different genre, domain, register and mode (e.g. British/American; spoken/written; fiction/newspapers/ephemera/radio, etc. etc.) POS-tagged (e.g. personal pronoun subject case; past tense verb; past participle, etc.)

8 “You shall know a word by the company it keeps.” J. R. Firth, 1957 “ It is not really possible to talk about the meaning of the word in isolation – it only has a particular meaning when it is in a particular environment.” Collins Cobuild Dictionary, Introduction  “ Teach new vocabulary in context and make students aware of the grammar and collocations of new words and phrases.” Cambridge ESOL examinations guidelines

9 Query #1: What “company” does the word fascinating keep? We type: fascinating, then click show conc, and a pop-up window appears. Make sure you allow pop-ups for this site! How common is it for people to be described as ‘fascinating’?

10 KWIC results quality! [p] [p] In just 12 fascinating bottles this case captures March 1990 [p] Crochet is a fascinating craft which allows for the sights and sounds of some fascinating cities like Berlin, Meissen to King Edward VII. Full of fascinating sidelights on the social [h] DEAUVILLE [/h] [p] Fascinating old towns are on your My First Atlas" provides a fascinating first look at our planet, routes. Our other ride is a fascinating journey through and Malaysia. Create a fascinating cultural pot-pourri JEWELLERY [/h] [p] The fascinating diversity of costume and of tourists to Russia for fascinating tours. [p] On the other lecturer and author of a fascinating book Our Treacherous Hearts you be ruined by someone that fascinating? He is not locking you in a from Tahiti, lies a fascinating island, barely touched by that's what makes them so fascinating. So you could come up with of that makes boating so fascinating. [p] In the final analysis new things about these fascinating animals all the time. One accumulated a vast amount of fascinating information about the Red of a century has been a fascinating and absorbing experience state is by far the most fascinating phenomenon in hypnotism, Rediscovered (Clarendon) is a fascinating account, at once gossipy after his death in 1821 are fascinating in their own right, and a This area is very rich and fascinating with [p] its collisions of selling sex for dimes. As fascinating for its eccentric social at the turnstiles will be fascinating. There is the initial The older she gets the more fascinating she will become because our bright mix of hard news, fascinating features, breathtaking my expanding knowledge of the fascinating subject of SEX. [p] But it

11 Query #2: What preposition(s) can be used in the phrase ‘take … consideration’? CCS Query syntax: += joins terms together IN = preposition NOUN= any noun form NN= common noun NNS= noun plural etc. So, we type: take+IN+consideration

12 KWIC results [/h] [p] A We take into consideration many factors in deciding you should take into consideration such important facts as is so much to take into consideration - like your style of exceeded we may take into consideration the amount of any dimensions to take into consideration, that there are variable will the Agency take into consideration the contribution which their naivety to take into consideration, too. The chaps at the all designed to take into consideration the high-quality sound now one must take into consideration both their size and shape important point to take into consideration when selecting conifers, which does not take into consideration the inseparable unity that you have to take into consideration. Whichever destination you You must also take into consideration your own particular that figure if you take into consideration the employees who are the court to take into consideration when sentencing. [p] His something we will take into consideration. [p] I'm sure we wouldn't [p] If you take into consideration the fact that Tyson has

13 Query #3: What verb(s) collocate with the noun “a survey”? So we type: VBD+a+survey

14 KWIC results A friend once conducted a survey of men's preferences regarding 1985 Joseph Friedman drafted a survey of the house, which served as put together. And we did a survey on a computer to study the on Mount Elgon, in `88 we did a survey which suggested that there cured, the letter arrived. A survey on sexual habits was being Other experts urged a survey of the surviving wild in Italy. In 1930 he launched a survey on `Catholic culture" in Vita The Italian bishops ordered a survey of Italian priests to which 25, Shere Hite conducted a survey in the United States in 1989 Lenders (CML) published a survey which showed a clear majority Young Women Lawyers published a survey this summer of 100 big law for example, conducted a survey of its customers and control systems. Ludlow did a survey of the securities industry Harvard University unveiled a survey of American attitudes that the lobby group, said a survey of 2,858 members showed an to Mr Evans, who now quoted a survey alleging there were `15,000 potential NHS patients said a survey for BBC's Panorama. [p] Mrs the name. [p] Anyway, we did a survey among children which showed [p] Researchers conducted a survey among 11-year-olds, asking to the magazine, we conducted a survey, which revealed that an as a you know we conducted a survey all the ones that we knew the record. When they held a survey on one night in May last year ago s er they're they ran a survey in English schools and adviser study and we did a survey of purchasers many purchasers [M02] Two years ago we took a survey. This was born in my heart as of God. Two years ago we took a survey and at that point there were really. Erm and if you did a survey of local [ZF1] peo [ZF0]

15 Sample collocation task New First Certificate Gold, Longman, B2 Cross out the adjective which does not collocate with the noun:... 8. We are hoping for a (quick; swift; rapid) reply. 9. She is making (good; swift; rapid) progress with her German. QUERY: JJ+reply QUERY: make@+JJ+progress What other kind of progress can one be making?

16 KWIC results lung cancer will be the swift reply. It often coes as a surprise have to send you a disappointing reply, but the criteria for listing thing from the life, and Paul's swift reply that he did not do much [p] They gave him a blunt reply. This industry had been CASH BONUS for your prompt reply! [p] And don't forget -- you please forgive this very tardy reply. Profound apologies. But allow I'm often asked. The honest reply, which is that I smoke, sleep, London), working honest, genuine reply only. [p] 8389-Kind hearted, sure is the somewhat nervous reply. [p] 10.30 am [p] So here I am Prime Minister gave a confident reply to that prediction: Just let [p] Yes," came the cautious reply. [p] My name's Kolchinsky. I then gave an astonishing reply: `The only thing I can say is out Despite his light-hearted reply, George's compassion and came my daughter's sleepy reply. [318] There was no time to be Andrews," came the muffled reply. `I spoke to you earlier on I know it," came the indignant reply. `I'll be in touch.' Thanks, He's dead," came the exasperated reply. `My source was a senior No, I don't," was his blunt reply. So you think he's already in English," came the indifferent reply as if it was of little mccrain," came the gruff reply as the man smoothed down his doctors," was the disconcerting reply. Drugs are now so widespread about Mr Hume in an impassioned reply, talking about `a tragedy of Villa" receives the startling reply: `Suicide is a perfectly And the Yorkshiremen's instant reply - inevitably coming from Tony Gorbachev is expecting a speedy reply from Iraq to his plan for

17 KWIC results to help you make maximum progress, regardless of your current keen to make rapid progress are able to wok in the Haynes were making leisurely progress; Malcolm's bowling was and they are making rapid progress. This is Sharon's first year have already made rapid progress by the normal standards of countries have made tremendous progress. Consumption per capita has Mr Shevardnadze had made good progress. Mr Shevardnadze said the said they were making good progress, although he did not Brisbane and India make good progress in Chandigarh The top seeds But we have made tremendous progress I think in moving toward an that we are making steady progress towards gaining it, and there groups and initially made good progress. Against them stood the We've made excellent progress recently, mostly because we' still be able to make pleasing progress in many areas of his life. he can make considerable progress. There will also be some He will make substantial progress in his career and would do still be able to make steady progress in most of his activities. He are likely to make pleasing progress. The Horse does, however, well. He can make considerable progress in his career and if he is Dogs will [198] make pleasing progress in their work in 1995. Pig. He will make considerable progress in many of his activities as would appear to be making good progress, in the right direction. [p] big names". His firm made good progress last year in the mergers and fact that he must make speedy progress to avoid a long spell in the blank morning, they made rapid progress from 210-1 overnight. [p] child who doesn't make steady progress on the slopes and take great Teresa nonetheless made rapid progress in prayer. She experienced

18 Query: Can we really rule out ‘ rapid reply ’? KWIC results CCS: No matches BNC: No solutions found for this query!

19 Sample collocation task CAE Result!, OUP, 2006, C1 Choose the word that fits best:... 4. The first chapter ……. the scene for what happens next. LAYS PREPARES SETS … 9. Amanda’s (STRONGLY/FIERCELY) jealous of her more successful sister. Tip from teacher’s book: “Remind students that checking in a dictionary can help them select the correct collocation.” But will it?

20 QUERY: VBD+the+scene VBD=set (11/27) you at the entrance set the scene and the pleasant greenery perfect partners [p] Set the scene for summer dishes and put Natacha's mother all set the scene. Everything in the room looks ramatically transformed the scene because of their devotion to Joyce and, on arrival, stole the scene in a stunning dress by Louise l Cricketers. Survived the scene that sedated itself with a History and fantasy set the scene, with everything from Little on Saturday Morning set the scene for a busy weekend of hill Club, Lord Whitelaw, visited the scene this morning. He described the ago at 9, 45, ambulance left the scene. Two more fire tenders have hour's play on Thursday set the scene for the duration, so did lads," I muttered. I checked the scene once more, then slid off the age in the Seventies set the scene for the girls' educational at the door, surveyed the scene, then strode in detouring disguised as Kochis, watched the scene with interest. [p] The truck's block Quentin Tarantino set the scene for a battle royal with his ever was [p] Christie set the scene for a titanic final showdown As the cameras recorded the scene, the doctor thanked the court the time genuinely believed the scene to be taking place at night. nearby appeared and I left the scene of devastation as quickly as street, in Dublin, described the scene as `manic [p] Charities have the doctor who attended the scene said. [p] Dr Peter Lea, who 23 or 24 when he painted the scene and was in Venice studying the of the Philippines visited the scene yesterday and ordered a possiblity and somehow set the scene for the changes to come. [ p] last night, Mr Major set the scene for the crackdown, saying: ` when officers reached the scene. [p] The car, believed to be MONTGOMERIE last night chose the scene of one of his biggest in authority reached the scene and claimed his pawn for the the waking vision disrupted the scene 6 [p] Suddenly the room filled

21 Data-driven learning (DDL) “the use in the classroom of computer-generated concordances to get students to explore regularities of patterning in the target language, and the development of activities and exercises based on concordance output.” Johns T. & King P. (eds.) (1991) Classroom concordancing, Special issue of ELR Journal 4

22 Data-driven learning Sample task #1 Write down 3 examples where ‘set the scene’ is used metaphorically. How many literal uses can you count in the sample? Does the metaphorical use prevail over the literal? Sample task #2 Arrange the kinds of reply from the KWIC results according to speedemotion in giveremotion in receiver tardy speedy instant light-hearted Indignant impassioned disappointing startling astonishing

23 Data-driven learning Sample task #3: Check what verbs collocate with ‘hypothesis’ most often and arrange them in 3 sections: QUERY: VERB+DT+2hypothesis  form … support … disprove …

24 Data-driven learning Sample task # 4 Research: Is There Any Difference? a) dependent dependant b) priceless worthless c)..... Write down a few typical collocations with each. Insulin-dependent diabetes a motor-dependent society dependent drug-users dependent on the whims of fate a cash sum to the legal dependants of those who die while working and other dependants, including his wife and younger children priceless artwork / jewel / pearl necklace priceless anecdote / time and energy worthless crap a worthless fake a worthless piece of junk/son of a bitch

25 Data-driven learning Sample activity #5: Which of the adjectives collocates most strongly with each of the nouns? Check your responses with the T-score of the Collocation Sampler. biglargevastgreat asset quantity difficulty problem majority mistake

26 Data-driven learning Sample speaking activity As a guessing game, try to predict some common collocates of the word ‘authorities’. What verbs might collocate with it? What adjectives? Which nationality adjective do you expect to be the most frequent? Check your guesses with the T-score of the Collocation Sampler.

27 Data-driven learning  Sample speaking activity The VBGs below appear among the top 20 collocates of ‘money’. Discuss your expectations of which one in each pair will be higher up in the list, then check to see if your gut feeling was right. SPENDINGEXTORTINGor SAVINGDONATING BORROWINGLAUNDERINGor LENDINGLOSING _____________________________________________________ Type in: VBG+money Select: Mutual Information

28 What does concordancing give the learner? Awareness of what it takes to “know a word” Focus on a particular lexical item in varied contexts Mnemonic help improved performance at exams A feel of authenticity: a look into the real ‘life’ of a language Autonomy lifelong learning The enjoyment of discovery

29 BETA-IATEFL Annual conference, May 11, 2008 Presenter: Danya Doganova


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