Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction 1865-1877 Ch. 12. IIII mmmm pppp aaaa cccc tttt o o o o ffff C C C C iiii vvvv iiii llll W W W W aaaa rrrr Economic Land Labor Industry."— Presentation transcript:
Reconstruction Ch. 12
IIII mmmm pppp aaaa cccc tttt o o o o ffff C C C C iiii vvvv iiii llll W W W W aaaa rrrr Economic Land Labor Industry Political Government Laws Socially Freedmen Confederate Leaders Militarily 5 military districts
Problems in the South Damage had been great plantations ruined $$ was worthless roads blocked with rubble railroads damaged few police, no judges, no courts no established governments
Economic Impact Property had lost 66% of it’s original value. 40% of livestock killed and 50% of machinery destroyed 40 Acres and a Mule General Sherman passed Special Field Order 15 All abandoned plantations and a mule shall be given to freedmen Transportation system neglected or destroyed. Railroads Slaves were now free and labor had to be bought. Sharecroppers Tenant farmers Cotton trade ruined by Confederate policies, turn to rice and sugar as crops
General Effects of the War The collapse of the Confederacy made Confederate money worthless.
Political Impact Government installed and ran by Northern politicians. New Southern Governments adopted “Black Codes” applied to African Americans “Freedmen” were not allowed to vote, own land, work certain jobs Congress felt the south did not intend to end slavery
Black Codes Vagrancy Freedmen could be fined, jailed or whipped for not working Curfews Freedmen had to be home by dark Contracts Sign a one year contract to work and if broken would be jailed. Ownership of Land Could not own land within city or town limits
Social Impact 260,000 Confederates killed 1/5 of entire male population Education Freedman, women and poor whites uneducated Loss of social structure Plantation owners killed or moved to Europe or Brazil. Slaves are now freedmen Northern politicians and army governing South Confederate Leaders could not hold office in New South.
Lincoln v. Johnson Reconstruction Plan 10% Plan 10% Plan 10% of population must take oath of loyalty of Union and emancipation 10% of population must take oath of loyalty of Union and emancipation Appointed military governors to rule temporarily Appointed military governors to rule temporarily No pardons for confederate leaders No pardons for confederate leaders Ban slavery and ratify the 13 th Amendment Ban slavery and ratify the 13 th Amendment Oath of loyalty to Union and emancipation. Oath of loyalty to Union and emancipation. President controlled pardons for confederate leaders and property owners over 20,000 President controlled pardons for confederate leaders and property owners over 20,000 Call a Constitutional Convention Call a Constitutional Convention Repeal Succession Ratify 13 th Amendment Refuse to pay Confederate debt
Wade Davis Bill Congress passed Reconstruction Plan in 1864 Majority of citizens os State must pledge loyalty to Union and emancipation before election could take place. Lincoln utilized a pocket veto to kill bill Bill passed in last 10 days of a legislative session can be ignored
Reconstruction Amendments 13 th Amendment ratified in 1865 Ended slavery in United States 14 th Amendment ratified in 1868 No State shall make or enforce any law which …..deprives any person life, liberty, or property 15 th Amendment ratified in 1870 Race cannot deny person right to vote
Poll Taxes Southern states passed the poll tax. No one could vote unless they owned property Or could pay fee to vote Grandfather Clause State could not take away rights that you had prior to a change in the law Passed to protect poor whites voting rights Literacy Test Must be able to read and write to vote Klu Klux Klan Used physical and mental abuse to keep freedmen from voting
Reconstruction Acts Reconstruction Act of April, 1867 South divided into 5 military districts TN exempt due to readmission in Union in New governments formed to guarantee freedmen the right to vote, elected by all male citizens, and ratify 14 th Amendment. Three other Reconstructions Acts passed in 1867 & 1868 Military registered freedmen to vote and could remove any official that resisted. Tenure of Office Act Passed in 1867 required Senate permission to remove any official whose appointment had required Senate approval
Freedmen Freedman’s Bureau Passed by Congress in 1865 Hiram Revels First freedman to serve in Senate from Mississippi. Took vacated seat of Jefferson Davis. One of 16 freedmen in the Senate Southern Homestead Act Set aside 45 million acres for freedmen Sharecropping Lived on land and farmed land in exchange for percentage of crop Tenant Farming Rented fraction of land and farmed as they wanted
Enforcement Acts Passed in response to the Klu Klux Klan Took effect in 1870 & 1871 Set heavy penalties and imprisonment for disruption of voting. Banned use of disguises in intimidation tactics. Federal courts and army empowered to prosecute KKK.
Compromise of 1877 Election of 1876 Democrat Samuel Tilden v. Republican Rutherford Hayes Tilden won popular vote and electoral college ( ) Needed 1 vote for a majority with 20 disputed electoral votes outstanding. 19 were from Southern states of Louisiana, South Carolina and Florida. Oregon’s vote went to Hayes with the remaining 19 being claimed by both Democrats and Republicans. Electoral Commission established to decided which candidate received each vote.
Compromise of 1877 Election of 1876 Republicans gained advantage on 15 member panel and won vote 8-7. The Electoral Commission consisted of five Representatives, five Senators, and five Supreme Court Justices. Originally, there were supposed to be seven Republicans, seven Democrats and one Independent. When David Davis, a registered Independent, refused to accept the nomination, the balance shifted to a Republican majority. All electoral votes went to the Republican candidate Hayes.
Compromise of 1877 Election of 1876 Democrats controlled the House of Representatives which had to ratify the commissions findings. Democrats agreed to certify Hayes as President in exchange To withdraw federal soldiers from their remaining positions in the South To enact federal legislation that would spur industrialization in the South To appoint Democrats to patronage positions in the South To appoint a Democrat to the president’s cabinet. Construction of a second transcontinental railroad in the South called the Texas and Pacific.