Presentation on theme: "ROAD TO WORLD WAR II. CAUSES - The Peace of Paris A. The Peace of Paris: (collective name for all the treaties drawn up). Many countries dissatisfied."— Presentation transcript:
CAUSES - The Peace of Paris A. The Peace of Paris: (collective name for all the treaties drawn up). Many countries dissatisfied with the agreements either because they lost territory or had to pay reparations. In Germany, the hated treaty was called the Friedensdiktat ("the dictated peace")
CAUSES -Economic Problems B. Economic Problems 1. Debt: Europeans urged Americans to erase the war debt but American leaders insisted on repayment. Coolidge said ''They hired the money, didn't they?" Nevertheless, the U.S. cut Allied war debt in half during the 1920's. In 1931 Hoover declared a moratorium on payment of war debts. Allied debtors defaulted on the remainder owed.
CAUSES - Economic Problems 2. Inflation in Germany: The mark went from 8.4 to the dollar in 1919 to 7,000 to the dollar by December, 1922. When the Allied Reparations Commission declared Germany in default on its debt the French and Belgians occupied the Ruhr on January 11, 1923. Chancellor Wilhelm Cuno encouraged passive resistance and printed worthless marks which dropped from 40,000 to the dollar in January, 1923 to 4.2 trillion to the dollar by December. The Ruhr occupation ended on September 26, 1923 but the inflationary spiral had severe economic, social, and political consequences.
CAUSES -Economic Problems 3. Reparations: Germany defaulted on its payments. America feared that radicalism would grow in Germany so American bankers loaned millions of dollars. This was the beginning of the Triangular Relationship: 1) Americans bankers loaned money to Germany; 2) Germany paid reparations to Allies; 3) Allies repaid war debts to United States
CAUSES -Economic Problems a. Dawes Plan (1924): reduced Germany's annual payments, extended the repayment period, and provided more loans. b. In 1928-29 American loans to Germany declined as investment in the stock market became more lucrative. c. Young Plan (1929): reduced Germany's reparations but ineffective as the international economy collapsed. Great Britain rejected Hoover's offer to exchange war debt for British Honduras, Bermuda, and Trinidad.
CAUSES -Economic Problems 4. Depression: High unemployment (Germany's was almost equal to that of the other European countries combined - 43% in 1932) and economic disorder
CAUSES -Economic Problems 5. Economic nationalism- World trade diminished 1929-1933. Each country worked for its own economic welfare rather than trying to find a collective solution. This resulted in the raising of tariffs worldwide. The London Conference (1933) was called to stabilize the international monetary situation but it was not effective.
CAUSES- Nationalism C. Nationalism: countries placed their own interests first; some looked for restoration of national honor
CAUSES -. Instability of Democratic Governments D. Instability of Democratic Governments-Rise of Dictatorships: arose in countries with a weak history of democracy - Russia, Japan, Italy, Germany, Spain
CAUSES – Territorial Expansion E. Territorial Expansion
CAUSES – Failure of League of Nations F. Failure of the League of Nations to enforce its rulings: An important instrument of diplomacy in the 1920s, the league was unable to fulfill its chief aims of disarmament and peace-keeping in the 1930s. Its failure to act when 1) Japan invaded Manchuria in September, 1931, 2) its non-action during the Sino- Japanese War, 3) its slow response to German rearmament, and finally,
CAUSES – Failure of League of Nations 4) its failure to prevent the Italian conquest of Ethiopia, resulted in its ultimate demise. It lost members and fell into disuse before World War II. It revived briefly in December 1939 to make the meaningless gesture of expelling the USSR for its attack on Finland. Some of its technical services continued to function until the organization was formally terminated on April 18, 1946, when it was succeeded by the newly organized United Nations
CAUSES - Pacifism G. Pacifism: The terrible loss of life, destruction of property, and psychological devastation engendered by World War I caused Britain, France, and other democratic states to withdraw into a shell wherein they could avoid war. This deep abhorrence made them ignore or explain away the actions of Hitler until it was too late.
CAUSES – Failure of Appeasement H. Failure of the policy of Appeasement: Working on the premise that they could satisfy Hitler's lust for territory, the western powers allowed him to take a little bit of territory which only convinced him that they would fail to act if he took even more. Underlying the policy was a feeling that Germany really had been shortchanged in the Treaty of Versailles.
1920s PEACE ATTEMPTS A. American Relief Administration: Europe was a mess following World War I. This agency delivered food to needy Europeans.
1920s PEACE ATTEMPTS B. Washington Conference (Nov, 1921-Feb. 1922): Purpose to reduce the number of naval armaments. The U.S., Britain, Japan, France, Italy, China, Portugal, Belgium, and the Netherlands discussed limits on naval armaments. Problem - No enforcement clause.
1920s PEACE ATTEMPTS 1. The Five Power Treaty set a 10 year moratorium on the construction of capital ships and established a total tonnage ratio among the top five nations. (Britain France the U.S., Japan, Italy) Also no new fortifications in Pacific possessions. 2. The Nine Power Treaty: reaffirmed the Open Door in China and recognized Chinese sovereignty. 3. The Four Power Treaty the U.S., Britain, Japan, France agreed to respect each other's Pacific possessions.
1920s PEACE ATTEMPTS C. Geneva Protocol (1924): Stated that the nation that refused to submit to arbitration by the World Court, the League Council, or special arbitrators would be termed the aggressor. British opposition spelled its failure.
1920s PEACE ATTEMPTS D. Locarno Pact (1925): Series of agreements among European nations prompted by German Foreign Minister, Gustav Stresemann. They dealt with boundaries, acceptance of arbitration, frontier defenses, and the withdrawal of French and Belgian forces from the Rhineland (by 1930). As a result, Germany joined the League of Nations on September 10, 1926. The ''feel good'' atmosphere led to the ''spirit of Locarno'' which inspired the Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928): signed by 62 nations; Condemned war but lacked enforcement.
1920s PEACE ATTEMPTS E. London Naval Disarmament Treaty (March, 1930): Great Britain and the U.S. wanted to expand the naval limitations of the Five Power Treaty. Mild reductions in cruiser and destroyer strength were made.
1920s PEACE ATTEMPTS F. World Disarmament Conference (February 5, 1932): Much discussion but nothing settled. Ended in failure June, 1934.
THE RISE OF FASCISM IN EUROPE A. Fascism: collection of ideas and prejudices that included supremacy of the state over the individual, authoritarianism, a state-regulated economy and militarism. Called Nazism or National Socialism in Germany.
THE RISE OF FASCISM IN EUROPE - ITALY B. Italy 1. Problems: a) Disappointment that the 1915 Treaty of London which promised the return of ''Italia Irredenta" was not honored at Versailles; b) There were strikes and agrarian unrest
THE RISE OF FASCISM IN EUROPE - ITALY 2. Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) came to power in October 1922 with the help of his ''Black Shirts'' who marched on Rome in October demanding that the king call on Mussolini to form a new Cabinet. Mussolini was viewed as one who would preserve the law, maintain order, and uphold the rights of property-holders. Mussolini consolidated his power using censorship, abolition of all political parties except Fascists, destruction of labor unions. His administration is associated with efficiency as evidenced by the fact the trains ran on time.
THE RISE OF FASCISM IN EUROPE - ITALY 3. Victor Emmanuel III complied and Mussolini was granted dictatorial authority for one year. In the 1924 elections Fascists won 3/5 of the seats. a. “Corporate Organization": business remained in private hands but government controls were imposed. b. Lateran Treaty: 1929; the Church recognized Mussolini's Italy and Vatican City was given autonomy.
THE RISE OF FASCISM IN EUROPE - ITALY 4. Invasion of Ethiopia: In 1935 by Italian troops. The failure of the League of Nations to act spelled its demise
THE RISE OF FASCISM IN EUROPE - ITALY 5. Italians experienced a sense of ''National exhilaration.''
THE RISE OF FASCISM IN EUROPE - GERMANY C. Germany: Third Reich ''would last a thousand years" 1. Rise of Hitler (1889-1945): In 1919 he joined the German Workers Party in Munich. It became the National Socialists German Workers Party in 1920. In 1923 he participated in the Munich Putsch or Beer Hall Putsch. He was arrested and imprisoned. In 1924 there was an economic revival and NAZI membership suffered. Fortunately, the depression came.
THE RISE OF FASCISM IN EUROPE - GERMANY 2. Hitler in Power: The NAZI'S enjoyed victories in the 1930 and 1932 elections. The Party line denounced the Treaty of Versailles, the Weimar Republic. It promoted the concept of the Volk - the people. It promoted Anti-semitism. Hitler and the NAZI'S were supported by landowners who thought they could control him. In 1933 Adolf Hitler came to power as chancellor to President Hindenburg in the Weimar Republic. He vowed to revive German military and economic strength, to cripple Communism, and to purify the German race by destroying Jews.
THE RISE OF FASCISM IN EUROPE - GERMANY He had described his master race theory in his 1923 book Mein Kampf. He enforced his wishes through the use of Sturmabteilung, Stormtroopers (SA), the Schutzstaffel (SS), and the Geheime Staatspolizei, Gestapo sporting the Nazi symbol, the Swastika.
THE RISE OF FASCISM IN EUROPE - GERMANY 3. Early moves a) October 24, 1933: Hitler pulled Germany out of the League of Nations and ended reparations payments. b). January 26. 1934: Germany signs a non- aggression pact with Poland (broke France's encirclement of Germany via the Little Entente)
THE RISE OF FASCISM IN EUROPE - GERMANY c). June 30, 1934: The Rohm Purge (The Night of the Long Knives); Rohm headed the SA. He and it posed a threat to Hitler's power. The Gestapo and the SS arrested and murdered 84 SA leaders and other political opponents.
THE RISE OF FASCISM IN EUROPE - GERMANY 4. August 2, 1934: Death of Hindenburg. Hitler combined the offices of Chancellor and President. He required all civil servants to take an oath of loyalty to him. Nazi Youth movement: revival of German spirit. Deification of the leader
THE RISE OF FASCISM IN EUROPE - GERMANY 5. March 15, 1935: Announced that Germany would no longer obey the military restrictions of the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler had already created an air force Luftwaffe and was instituting a draft. Rearmament ended unemployment.
THE RISE OF FASCISM IN EUROPE - GERMANY 6. June 18, 1935: Naval Pact with Britain restricting German naval tonnage (excluding submarines) to 35% of that for England.
THE RISE OF FASCISM IN EUROPE - GERMANY 7. September 15, 1935: Nuremburg Laws deprived Jews of German citizenship and outlawed sexual or marital relations between Jews and other Germans
THE RISE OF FASCISM IN EUROPE - GERMANY 8. March 7, 1936 German troops invaded the Rhineland an area the Treaty of Versailles had demilitarized. France did not resist because it would not move without British support.
THE RISE OF FASCISM IN EUROPE - GERMANY 9. Nazi Leaders: Hermann Goring, took over SA 1922, Gestapo 1933; Rudolf Hess, Hitler's Secretary; Joseph Goebbels, Berlin Party chief and later propaganda chief; Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS 1929
THE RISE OF FASCISM IN EUROPE D. Anti-Comintern Pact: union of Germany and Japan against USSR 1936. Rome-Berlin Axis (Nov., 1936)
THE RISE OF FASCISM IN EUROPE – SPANISH CIVIL WAR E. Spanish Civil War (1936-1939): In 1931 Alfonso XII was driven out of power. A republic was established. 1. Loyalist Republican against the fascist- backed insurgents under Francisco Franco.
THE RISE OF FASCISM IN EUROPE – SPANISH CIVIL WAR 2. Hitler and Mussolini sent military aid to Franco. German air force units bombarded Madrid, Barcelona, & Guernica (the latter inspired Picasso's famous painting which became an anti-fascist symbol). Italy sent troops tanks and other war materiel. The USSR backed the Loyalists with advisers and troops recruited from anti-fascists around the world. France, Britain, and the U.S. practiced nonintervention. 3000 American volunteers called the Lincoln Battalion joined the side of the Republicans. Franco won in 1939 and ruled until his death in 1975.
THE U.S. RESPONSE TO THE RISE OF FASCISM A. Isolationism: As trouble increased in Europe Americans reasserted their isolationist stand. Many resented Europeans who expected the U.S. to do what they had failed to do - stop Hitler.
THE U.S. RESPONSE TO THE RISE OF FASCISM B. Franklin Roosevelt - emphasized disarmament and the horrors of war. In a 1936 Chautauqua speech he promised U.S. would stay distant from European conflict. He endorsed appeasement during the Czech crisis of 1938. FDR did not like the behavior of the "three bandit nations". He did not like German persecution of Jews or Japanese slaughter of Chinese civilians.
THE U.S. RESPONSE TO THE RISE OF FASCISM C. Merchants of Death: U.S. businessmen were accused of being this by promoting war to make a profit. DuPont, Standard Oil, General Motors, and Union Carbide all sold to the fascists. The Nye Munitions Investigations (1934-1937) lodged this accusation in regard to WWI.
THE U.S. RESPONSE TO THE RISE OF FASCISM D. Neutrality Acts (1935,1936,1937): prohibited arms shipments to either side in a war once the president had declared the existence of belligerency; forbade loans to belligerents; introduced the ''cash and carry'' principle; forbade Americans from traveling on the ships of belligerent nations