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W w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. CLIMATE CHANGE! How to measure the Safety Climate in your organization Whitney Martin.

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Presentation on theme: "W w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. CLIMATE CHANGE! How to measure the Safety Climate in your organization Whitney Martin."— Presentation transcript:

1 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. CLIMATE CHANGE! How to measure the Safety Climate in your organization Whitney Martin

2 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. Overview Safety “Culture” vs. “Climate” Leading vs. Lagging Indicators The Who, What, and Why behind doing Safety Perception Surveys –Who should consider doing a safety survey? –Why should I do one? –What will I get out of it? The Logistics of Doing a Survey

3 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. Safety “Culture” “Safety Culture” first used in reference to Chernobyl disaster, and later Challenger and Columbia shuttle explosions, King’s Cross underground fire in London, Continental 2574 crash in “The product of individual and group values, attitudes, beliefs, competencies, and patterns of behavior that determine commitment to, and the style and proficiency of, organization’s health and safety management.” –Advisory Committee on Safety in Nuclear Installations (ACSNI)

4 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. “Culture” vs. “Climate” Safety Climate is described as safety culture in action, the tangible outputs of safety culture, a “snapshot” of safety culture Both Exist on a continuum Both are created through messages sent (actions and words) and determine behavior

5 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. Measuring Safety What you measure sends a message C-Suite measures-- Percentage Profit, Market Share, Return on Investment, Quality, Productivity, Customer Satisfaction– positive, measures of success Safety Staff measures-- Injuries? Lost time? Measures of failure. Our success results in the lack of an outcome, so we need to find a way to measure the inputs instead (i.e.: safe behavior, safety awareness, safety attitude…) *

6 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. The Problem with Lagging Indicators Under reporting Don’t accurately account for “luck” Don’t reflect potential severity of hazards Severity of event difficult to quantify Can result in complacency Ideally, result in lack of data! Measure outcomes, not causes

7 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. The Problem with Lagging Indicators Requires system failure “Of course you can use frequency-severity figures to measure your firm’s safety program, as long as you realize that in almost all instances these figures are absolutely worthless.” -- Dan Peterson Need to shift to a proactive, upstream measure

8 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. What is a Safety Perception Survey? Measures values, beliefs, and attitudes that drive behavior A proactive measure of safety-- allows you to identify the state of safety within the workplace without having to wait for the system to fail

9 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. Why Conduct a Safety Perception Survey? Send a message (internal and external) Create alignment and engagement Add a communication channel Make informed decisions Change behavior Avoid “plateau” Bottom-line impact “You can’t manage what you can’t measure” --Peter Drucker

10 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. Where Perception Surveys Fit SAFETY!! BEHAVIORSENVIRONMENT BELIEFS & ATTITUDES

11 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. Who Should Do a Survey? Companies who want to: Demonstrate a true commitment to safety (success, not failure) Go beyond compliance Transcend the “plateau”

12 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. What Will Survey Results Tell Me? Where you are vs. where you want to be Whether you’re getting better or worse at it If your actions and interventions are –Effective (working) –Reliable (happening consistently across all areas of the org.) –On-target (proportionate to risks) –Efficient (not wasting time, dollars, and energy) “Only when you know why you have hit the target can you truly say you have learnt archery” --Chinese proverb

13 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. What Can I Do With the Results? Evaluate the impact of programs and activities Make more informed, focused decisions and action plan based on sound information Pinpoint areas of concern where interventions are needed Look at trends over time Facilitate change and improvement

14 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. What Should I Measure? Management commitment Supervisor competence Priority of safety Time pressures Policies and Procedures Practices/patters of behavior Communication Training Trust Reward/Repercussion Systems Behaviors outside of work Risk Perception Effectiveness of Safety Committees Investigations Employee Empowerment/ Ownership Environment, PPE, and Systems Emergency Preparedness Hazards Employee Wellness Substance Use/Abuse

15 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. What Should I Measure? 1) Organizational Commitment Extent to which upper management: identifies safety as a core value/guiding principal of the organization demonstrates enduring positive attitude towards safety (even in a pinch) actively promotes safety in a consistent manner across all levels of the organization consistently provides adequate resources and supports development and implantation of safety activities. Weigmann, Zhang, von Thaden, Gibbons, Sharma

16 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. What Should I Measure? 2) Management Involvement Extent to which both upper and middle management: get personally involved in critical safety activities within the organization (participation communicates/demonstrates commitment to safety which influences the degree to which employees comply with safety rules/practices) participate in training, meetings, committees, etc. are able to “stay in touch” with risks involved in everyday operations Weigmann, Zhang, von Thaden, Gibbons, Sharma

17 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. What Should I Measure? 3) Employee Empowerment Extent to which front line employees understand and accept that they are the last line of defense against errors/accident prevention are motivated to “make a difference” and go beyond the call of duty have a substantial voice in safety decisions hold self and others accountable for actions take pride in safety record. Weigmann, Zhang, von Thaden, Gibbons, Sharma

18 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. What Should I Measure? 4) Reward Systems Manner in which both safe and unsafe behaviors are evaluated Consistency in which rewards/penalties are doled out Extent to which reward/repercussion system is understood and internalized by employees and therefore drives safe behavior (rather than promoting counter-productive behavior) Weigmann, Zhang, von Thaden, Gibbons, Sharma

19 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. What Should I Measure? 5) Reporting Systems Key to identifying weaknesses and vulnerabilities before accidents occur Formal reporting system that is actually used comfortably by employees (without fear of reprisal from management or co- workers) Provides formal, valuable, and timely feedback to employees on what was done with their suggestions/input Weigmann, Zhang, von Thaden, Gibbons, Sharma

20 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. How Do I Measure? Qualitative—Employee observations, focus groups discussions, historical information review, case studies. Quantitative—numerically capture using standardized, calibrated instruments such as structured interviews and questionnaires. Combination– Qualitative to follow up and clarify issues found in Quantitative

21 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. Characteristics of Questionnaires Questions vs. Statements Open vs. Closed Make Items Short and Clear No Double-Barreled, Double-Negative, Leading, or Bias Items Ensure relevance to the scope of the project Make sure respondents are competent to answer

22 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. Other Survey Considerations Custom or “Off-the-Shelf” Reliability and Validity Appropriateness of Scales Coding of Written Scales Inclusion of Interviews Administration Method

23 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. Administration Method Participation Rate Confidentiality/Ability to facilitate trust Administration Options Logistical Issues 3rd Party vs. In-House Administration

24 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. Analyzing Results Begin with the End in Mind… Ensure results are meaningful, digestible, and actionable Slicing and Dicing Format should lead to ACTION

25 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. Top 10 List– Pitfalls to Avoid 10) Lack of FULL Organizational Commitment 9) Wrong Motives 8) Doesn’t Address the REAL Issues 7) Fail to Recognize that Perception IS Reality!! 6) Bad Timing/Wrong Conditions

26 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. Top 10 List– Pitfalls to Avoid 5) Process takes too long 4) Results aren’t communicated completely or effectively 3) Changes aren’t attributed to the survey 2) It’s an EVENT 1) Nothing is done with the results

27 w w w. c o n s u l t p r o a c t I v e. c o m Results. For a change. Questions? Whitney Martin


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