Presentation on theme: "1 Predicting Ethical Entrepreneurship Ability Among Hospitality Students Jon M. Ebersole, Dr. oec. (HSG) Katarzyna Grinberg, Dipl. Kauffrau (MBA) Glion."— Presentation transcript:
1 Predicting Ethical Entrepreneurship Ability Among Hospitality Students Jon M. Ebersole, Dr. oec. (HSG) Katarzyna Grinberg, Dipl. Kauffrau (MBA) Glion Institute of Higher Education TTRA Europe Conference, 11-13 April 2011
2 Presentation Outline I The Voyage of Life II Kohlberg's Stages of Ethical Judgment Capacity III Kegan's Stages of Socio-Emotional Maturity/Stature IV Assessing Hospitality Students V Conclusions & Discussion
9 Developmental Level S-2 Instrumental S-3 Other-Dependent S-4 Self-Authoring S-5 Self-Aware View of Others Instruments of own need gratification Needed to contribute to own self-image Collaborator, Delegate, Peer Contributors to integrity and balance of self and others Self AwarenessLowModerateHighVery High Values Law of the JungleCommunitySelf DeterminedHumanity Needs Overriding the needs of everyone else Subordinate to community and work group Striving for Integrity Viewed in connection with own obligations and limitations Need to Control Very HighModerateLowVery Low Communication Unilateral, Directive 1 to 1 ExchangeDialogueTrue Communication Organizational Orientation CareeristGood CitizenManagerLeader of Systems
10 Kohlberg‘s Stages of Ethical Development The Defining Issues Test - Heinz's Dilemma Heinz’s wife is dying of cancer and needs a drug that an enterprising druggist has invented. The druggist demands such a high price that Heinz cannot raise the money. Should Heinz steal the drug to save his dying wife? In deciding how Heinz should respond, evaluate (scoring from 1 to 5, with 5 as most important) which of the items below raise the most important considerations, and then order them from 1 to 12, with 1 being the most important.
11 Defining Issues Test - Heinz's Dilemma Score 1 -15 Rank 1 - 12 The "Defining Issues" Whether a community’s laws are going to be upheld. Isn’t it only natural for a loving husband to care so much for his wife that he’d steal? Is Heinz willing to risk getting shot as a burglar or going to jail for the chance that stealing the drug might help? Whether Heinz is a professional wrestler, or has considerable influence with professional wrestlers. Whether Heinz is stealing for himself or doing this solely to help someone else. Whether the druggist’s rights to his invention have to be respected. Whether the essence of living is more encompassing than the termination of dying, socially and individually. What values are going to be allowed to hide behind a worthless law that only protects the rich anyhow. Whether the druggist is going to be allowed to hide behind a worthless law that only protects the rich anyhow. Whether the law in this case is getting in the way of the most basic claim of any member of society. Whether the druggist deserves to be robbed for being so greedy and cruel. Would stealing in such a case bring about more total good for the whole society or not?
12 Defining Issues Test - Heinz's Dilemma Six Stages in the Concept of Cooperation Stage 6The morality of non-arbitrary social cooperation: Morality is defined by how rational and impartial people would ideally organize cooperation. Stage 5The morality of consensus-building procedures: You are obliged by the arrangements that are agreed to by due process procedures. Stage 4The morality of law and duty to the social order: Everyone in society is obliged to obey, and is protected by, the law. Stage 3The morality of interpersonal concordance: Be considerate, nice, and kind: you’ll make friends. Stage 2The morality of instrumental egoism and simple exchange: Let’s make a deal. Stage 1The morality of obedience: Do what you’re told. From Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development. Table based on Kohlberg, 1981 and Rest & Narvaez, 1994. For further information, see: Center for the Study of Ethical Development, Univ. of Minnesota: www.centerforthestudyofethicaldevelopment.net
13 Kegan - SOI & Kohlberg/Rest - DIT Socio-Emotional SOI Ethical Judgment DIT Post- conventional Universal Values Self-Authored Social Cooperation Consensus ConventionalOther-CenteredMaintaining Norms Pre- conventional Ego-Centric Other-Dependent Personal Interest Obedience
14 Assessing Hospitality Students Pilot study conducted with 23 4 th semester tourism and hospitality students DIT-1 assessment, along with a general questionnaire about age, gender and importance of religion and/or philosophy in participant’s family and in participant’s life 65% female, 35% male students
15 Assessing Hospitality Students Distribution of variable Age Distribution of variable Importance of religion/philosophy In students’ life: 2.78 (1.06) In students families’ life: 2.89 (1.24)
16 Assessing Hospitality Students DIT Results, Moral Schema scores Female students scored lower on Stage 4 (Maintain Norms): 25.11 compared with 36.25 of male students; and higher on Stage 5 and 6 (Post Convention.) 34.67 compared with 26.87 of male students
17 Assessing Hospitality Students Humanitarian/liberalism: agreement in students’ and experts’ answers Religious Orthodoxy: level of religious ortho- doxy, based on rating & ranking of the item related to religion (“God item”) Antisocial Score: level of anti-establishment sentiment
18 Assessing Hospitality Students Number of cannot decide choices: reflects the decisiveness with which the DIT participants would select the actions for the dilemmas presented in the test Correlation between no. of cannot decide choices and P Score female: r =.15 male: r = -.16
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