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Acct 440 Welcome to Taxation of Business Entities Dr. Efrat

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1 Acct 440 Welcome to Taxation of Business Entities Dr. Efrat
JH 3224 (818) Office Hours: Tuesdays and Thursdays 12:30-2:00 p.m.

2 Course Objectives Tax Knowledge Critical Thinking
Written Communication Research Skills Professional Responsibility & Ethics

3 Grading Attendance (3%) Participation (7%) Midterm (30%) Final (40%)
Homework (10%) Communication Problems (6%) Tax Return (4%)

4 Introduction to Taxation
CHAPTER ONE Introduction to Taxation

5 Pervasive Impact of Taxation
Tax freedom day Tax to income ratio Tax code provisions Time & costs to comply

6 Tax Freedom Day

7 Tax Freedom Day by State

8 Tax Freedom Day- International Comparison
India- March 14 Australia- April 21 United Kingdom- June 3 Czech Republic- June 7 Canada- June 19 Poland- June 26

9 Days to Pay Taxes Compared to Other Expenditures

10 Tax Burden

11 Tax Burden

12 Tax Burden

13 Tax Rates Progressive Proportional Regressive

14 Progressive Tax Rates Earners Percentage Share of Federal Taxes
Percentage Share of Total Income Top 1% 1990: 25% 2010: 38% 1990: 14% 2010: 20% Top 5% 1990: 44% 2010: 35% 1990: 27% 2010: 35% Bottom 50% 2010: 3% 2010: 13%

15 Average Tax Rates

16 Progressive Tax Rates Alice, who is single, has $38,000 taxable income in How much federal income taxes would she have to pay? 10% X $8,500+ 15% X ($34,500-$8,500)+ 25% X ($38,000-$34,500)=$5,625

17 Types of Taxes Transactional Tax Property Tax
Taxes on Privileges and Rights Income Tax

18 Transactional Taxes Sales Taxes Employment Taxes Excise vs. Sales Tax
Use Tax Employment Taxes FICA FUTA

19 Wealth Transfer Taxes Estate Tax Estate vs. inheritance tax
Computation FMV of decedent’s property, less Funeral expenses Debts Charitable donations Marital deduction to a surviving spouse United transfer tax credit

20 Wealth Transfer Taxes Gift Tax Original goal Donor is taxed
Annual Exclusion Computation

21 Gift Tax Antonio makes the following gifts in the current year: (1) gift of a personal automobile valued at $25,000 to his adult son; (2) gift of a personal computer valued at $4,000 to a friend. Are any of these transfers taxable?

22 Property Taxes Assessed on personal or/and real property
Difference between real and personal property

23 Taxes on Privileges & Rights
Custom Duties Franchise Tax Occupational Tax

24 Income Tax Main Source of Revenues for the Federal Government
Progressive in Nature Income Tax Computation

25 U.S. Federal Tax Revenues

26 Top Income Tax Rates Average 67 1980 2010 Australia 63% 45% Canada 60
29 France 40 Germany 65 45 Ireland 41 Italy 72 43 Japan 75 50 Korea 89 Spain 66 Sweden 87 57 Switzerland 31 26 U.K. 83 United States 70 35 Average 67

27 Formula for Federal Income Tax on Individuals Income (Slide 1 of 3)
Income (broadly conceived) $xx,xxx) Less: Exclusions (x,xxx) Gross income $xx,xxx) Less: Certain deductions for AGI (x,xxx) Adjusted Gross Income $xx,xxx

28 Formula for Federal Income Tax on Individuals Income (Slide 2 of 3)
Adjusted Gross Income $xx,xxx) Less: The greater of: Itemized deductions, or The standard deduction (x,xxx) Less: Personal and dependency exemptions (x,xxx) Taxable income $xx,xxx)

29 Formula for Federal Income Tax on Individuals Income (Slide 3 of 3)
Tax on taxable income (see Tax Rate Schedules in Appendix A) $ x,xxx Less: Tax credits Less: Federal income tax withheld and other prepayments of Federal income taxes) $(xxx) Tax due (or refund) $ xxx

30 Alternatives to Income Tax
Value Added Tax Networth Tax Flat Tax

31 Business Entities Sole proprietorships Partnerships C corporations
S corporations Limited liability Company (LLC)

32 Types of Tax Rates Marginal Tax Rate Average Tax Rate
Sandra, who is single, is considering the purchase of a personal residence that will provide a $10,000 tax deduction. Her current AGI is $95,000. What is the tax effect of this transaction? Average Tax Rate Sam, who is single, has $29,700 of taxable income in Based on applicable tax rates, Sam’s total tax is $4,030. What is the average tax rate?

33 Ethics & Professional Responsibilities
AICPA Code of Conduct AICPA Statements on Standards of Tax Service Internal Revenue Code IRS Circular 230

34 Due Diligence Rebecca, an accountant, fails to include dividend income on a tax return she completed for a client. The omitted dividend income was from a new stock purchased by the client this year from a new investment banking firm and therefore had not been reported in prior years. The taxpayer did not mention the new stock investment to Rebecca in any communication with her. Has Rebecca exercised due diligence?

35 Advocating Positions on Behalf of Client
Circular 230 Substantial authority for the position taken Reasonable Basis and fully disclosed Penalties

36 Advocating Positions on Behalf of Client
Clara Li owns 80% of the Li Corporation. The other 20% of the stock is held by her husband, Kevin Li. While working on the return, you note that Li Corporation pays rent to Clara at least four times the normal rate for rentals of similar property in that area of town. You recall that under the code, in order for a business expense to be deductible, it must be reasonable in amount. You report this observation to the partner. She tells you that it is all right to deduct the payments because the corporation has been doing it for several years. She asks you to sign the return. Should you sign this tax return?

37 Advocating Positions on Behalf of Client
Burger, Inc. has been engaged in unique lending practices for many years. Congress has recently adopted a new Code provision that prevents recognition of expenses associated with such lending practices. Burger Inc. and its tax advisor believe that the new Code provision is unfair to the taxpayer. However, the Code provision is clear and constitutional. May Burger Inc. claim the expense deduction nonetheless?

38 Advocating Positions on Behalf of Client
Assume the same facts as above, except that Burger Inc. insists on taking the tax return position (even though the CPA concluded that it is frivolous) because the company did not believe that the position would be detected by the IRS on an audit. May the tax preparer sign the tax return?

39 Reliance on Client’s Information
Is the information supplied by client appear correct, complete and consistent? If no, must verify information If yes, may rely without verification

40 Use of Estimates Estimates are allowed as long as:
It is impractical to obtain exact data The estimated amount appears to be reasonable Estimates are not allowed for certain expenditures such as travel and entertainment

41 Use of Estimates Which of the following situations would provide an acceptable case for using a taxpayer’s estimated figures in the preparation of a federal income tax return? a. The taxpayer has the necessary data available, but is busy with a pressing criminal prosecution. b. The data are not available at the time of filing the return, and the estimated amounts appear reasonable to the accountant. c. The taxpayer desires to use an estimate to determine the amount of his deduction for entertainment expenses.

42 Knowledge of an Error Advise client
Include recommendation for corrective action No disclosure to IRS, without client’s permission

43 Knowledge of an Error David Raskoff was hired as an accountant by Pipe & Supply Inc. to prepare its tax returns. In preparing the tax return David learns that his client has not complied with an IRS regulation addressing the depreciation of new machinery acquired by the business. David is required to: a. do nothing until advised by client or by previous accountant to take corrective action. b. advise the client of the noncompliance. c. immediately notify the IRS d. advise the client and notify the IRS, unless the client wants to contact the IRS directly.

44 Working with the Tax Law
CHAPTER TWO Working with the Tax Law

45 Sources of Tax Law Legislative branch Executive branch Judicial branch
Statutory law Executive branch Administrative law Judicial branch Case law

46 Legislative Process for Tax Bills

47 Statutory Sources of Tax Law
Internal Revenue Code Have had three codes: 1939, 1954, 1986 Example of Code Citation: IRC§ 2(a)(1)(A) 2 = section number (a) = subsection (1) = paragraph designation (A) = subparagraph designation

48 Administrative Sources of Tax Law- Regulations
Issued by IRS Provide general interpretations and guidance in applying the Code Example of Regulation citation: Reg. § (c)(1) 1 = income tax regulation 117 = code section to which regulation pertains -4 = fourth regulation on section 117 issued

49 Administrative Sources of Tax Law- Revenue Rulings
Officially issued by National Office of IRS Provide specific interpretations and guidance in applying the Code Less legal force than Regulations Published in the Cumulative Bulletins Example of Revenue Ruling citation: Rev. Rul. 2004–18, 2004–1 C.B. 509 Revenue Ruling Number 18, appearing on page 509 of Volume 1 of the Cumulative Bulletin for 2004

50 Administrative Sources of Tax Law- Private Letter Rulings
Provide guidance on how a transaction will be taxed before proceeding with it Issued for a fee & describes how the IRS will treat a proposed transaction Apply only to the taxpayer who asks for and obtains the ruling Example of Letter Ruling citation Ltr.Rul (39th ruling issued in the 14th week of 2004)

51 Administrative Sources of Tax Law-Determination Letters
Issued by Area Director at taxpayer’s request Usually involve completed transactions Not published, but made known only to party making the request

52 Federal Judicial System

53 Circuits of the United States Courts of Appeal

54 Forum Comparison Issue U.S. Tax Court U.S. District Court U.S. Court of Federal Claims Payment of Deficiency No Yes Yes Jury trial No Yes No Types of disputes Tax cases only Most criminal Claims against the & civil issues U.S. Gov Appeal U.S. Court of U.S. Court of U.S. Court of Appeals Appeals Appeals for the Federal Circuit

55 Tax Research Process

56 Case Brief Facts Issue/s Rule/s Holding/s Reasoning/s

57 Formulating an Issue Whether/Does Key Facts Tax Provision
Whether payments under a life insurance must be reported as income under section 61 of the Internal Revenue Code.

58 Drafting a Memo Brief Answer Facts Issue Rule Discussion

59 Income vs. Gift Donlad Bauta, who is homeless, listed in his tax return in 2011 his occupation as a beggar. During the year at issue, Mr. Bauta did not otherwise earn any income working for anyone. Nonetheless, Mr. Bauta reported income from begging in the amount of $3,000 in his 2011 Federal income tax return and claimed an earned income credit, in the amount of $550. Based on that credit, Mr. Bauta claimed a refund in the amount of $550. The IRS denied his claim arguing that the funds he collected while begging are not earned income, and since the credit is available only to individuals with earned income Mr. Bauta is ineligible for the earned income credit. Is he entitled to receive a refund?

60 CHAPTER FOUR Gross Income

61 Income Defined - Except otherwise provided, gross income
means all income from whatever source - Economic Benefit Test: -Compensation for services -Business income -Gains from the disposition of property -Interest and dividends -Rents and royalties -Income arising out of debt forgiveness -Income from partnerships

62 Form of Income King Corporation transfers 1,000 shares of its stock to its president. The stock has no restrictions and is part of the president’s compensation. Must the president include the value of the stock in gross income? Ali, an attorney, performs legal services for Paul, a painter, in exchange for Paul’s promise to paint Ali’s residence. Must Ali & Paul report income for this transaction?

63 When is Income Taxable? Depends on Accounting Method Selected
Who Selects Accounting Method Cash Method actual or constructive receipt of income Cash equivalency is required

64 Constructive Receipt Cathy, a cash basis taxpayer, has received a paycheck from her employer but has been told to hold the check until the employer has sufficient funds to cover the payroll. When does Cathy need to report the amount of the check as income?

65 When is Income Taxable? Accrual Method
All Events Test All events have occurred that fix the right to receive income Amount can be determined with reasonable degree of certainty Prepaid Income Exception Prepaid payment for goods Prepaid payment for services

66 Prepaid Payment for Services
Bear Corporation, an accrual basis taxpayer that uses the calendar year as its tax year, sells computer courses under contracts ranging from three months to two years. Assume Bear Corporation sold and received full payments for three contracts in July 2011: one for three months costing $90, one for one year costing $300, and one for two years costing $500. How much income must it recognize in 2011 and in 2012?

67 Income Sources Personal Services Dividends Income from Property
Imputed Interest on Below Market Loans Tax Benefit Rule Interest on Municipal Bonds Leasehold Improvements Life Insurance Proceeds Income from Discharge of Debts Gains and Losses from Property Transactions

68 Imputed Interest

69 Tax Benefit Rule In 2010, Jack’s employer withheld $1,200 from his wages for state income tax. Jack claimed the $1,200 as an itemized deduction on his 2010 federal income tax return. Because of a variety of losses incurred by Jack, he reported a negative taxable income of $32,000 during The state refunded the $1,200 during 2011.

70 Leasehold Improvements
Denver Investments, Inc. rents a retail space to KFC, Inc. The space normally would rent for $5,500 per month, but Denver Investment Inc. agrees to accept $5,000 per month for the first year if KFC builds a patio outside the premises. This would cause the building to appreciate in the amount of $10,000. Are there any tax consequences?

71 Discharge of Debt Indy Coal Company has seen its business decline during the past two years. The Company has a significant amount of bank debt that was incurred over the years to fund its coal operations. In order to maintain its operations, Indy entered into an agreement with the bank whereby the bank agreed to cancel 20% of Indy’s $500,000 debt. Assume Indy was solvent at the time of the cancellation. Does Indy have to recognize any income arising out of this transaction?

72 Discharge of Debt- Creditors’ gift exception
Farouk loaned his daughter $4,000 to help her purchase a car. Several months after she purchased the car, but before she repaid the $4,000, Farouk’s daughter got married. Farouk told his daughter that he was “tearing up” the $4,000 note as a wedding present.

73 Discharge of Debt: Insolvency and bankruptcy exception
In year one, Donald borrows $100,000 from a bank. The 10% interest on the loan is payable annually and the principal is to be repaid 10 years later. In year ten, Donald notifies the bank that he cannot repay the full $100,000 of principal. After some negotiations, the bank agrees to discharge the debt for $85,000. Immediately before the discharge, Donald has $300,000 of debt and $290,000 of assets; after discharge, he has $200,000 of debt and $205,000 of assets. What are the tax consequences to Donald in year 10?

74 Discharge of Debt: Student loan exception
Lee borrowed $160,000 from the federal government to attend medical school. Under the terms of the loan, $20,000 of debt is forgiven for each year she practices medicine in designated low-income neighborhoods.

75 Discharge of Debts: Seller’s cancellation exception
Clay purchased a used automobile from a dealer for $6,000. He paid $2,000 down and agreed to pay the balance of $4,000 over three years. After Clay purchased the automobile, he determined that it was defective. Clay tried to return the car, but the auto dealer refused. Clay threatened to sue the dealer. To resolve the problem, the dealer offered to reduce the balance due on the debt from $4,000 to $2,500. Clay agreed.

76 Discharge of Debt: Insolvency
General Rule Exceptions Creditors’ gift Insolvency and bankruptcy Student loan Seller cancellation Shareholder’s cancellation Taxpayer’s principal residence

77 Gains and Losses from Property Transactions
How Gain/Loss is Calculated Capital vs. Ordinary Gain/Loss Capital Asset Defined Treatment by individuals Treatment by Corporations

78 Chapter Five Business Deductions

79 Business Deductions Ordinary- normal, customary, or usual Necessary-

80 Business deduction: Ordinary expense
For several years, Donna has been engaged in the business of making and selling false teeth. Most of the advertisements, orders and deliveries of the teeth are done through the mail. During the current year, the post office judged that some of the advertisements were misleading. As a result, a fraud order is issued under which the post office stamps “Fraudulent” on all letters addressed to Donna, and then returns them to the senders. In an unsuccessful suit to prevent the post office from continuing this practice, Donna expends $25,000 in lawyer’s fees. Are these fees deductible?

81 Business deduction: Necessary expense
Ronald owns a chain of 10 donut shops. During the past three years the profits of the shops have declined sharply. Ronald consults a psychic to determine what to do about his reduced profits. On the advice of his psychic he pays $10,000 for 10 custom made doormats, which he places in front of the entrance to each of his stores. The psychic tells him that the doormats will bring luck to his business for the rest of the year. Is the cost deductible?

82 Business deduction: Reasonable amount
Brian, the controlling shareholder and an employee of Central Corporation, receives an annual salary of $250,000 from the corporation. Based on several factors, such as the size of Central Corporation’s total operations and a comparison of salary received by officers of comparably sized corporations, the IRS contends that Brian’s salary should be no higher than $150,000. What is deductible?

83 Business Deductions: Cash Method
Timing of Deduction: Deductible when paid with cash or other property

84 Business Deduction: Cash Method
Peter, a calendar year taxpayer, is the sole owner of a plumbing repair business. The business uses the cash method of accounting. Under an arrangement with one of his suppliers, Peter and his employees can pick up supplies at any time during the month by merely signing for them. At the end of the month, the supplier sends Peter a bill for the charges. Peter always pays the bill in full during the following month. In December of the current year, Peter charges on the open account $1,500 for supplies. During the same month Peter purchases a plumbing fixture for $250 from another supplier. Peter uses his charge card at the time of the purchase. How much may Peter deduct?

85 Business Deduction: Capital Expenditures
On November 1 of the current year, Jack, a cash basis taxpayer, enters into a lease arrangement with Raul to rent Raul’s office space for the following 36 months. By prepaying the rent for the entire 36 month period, Jack is able to obtain a favorable monthly lease payment of $800 /month. How much may Jack deduct in the current year?

86 Business Deduction: Accrual Method
All Events Test Liability is established Accuracy Economic Performance Test Recurring liability exception

87 Business Deduction: Accrual Method
During the current year, Phil provides services to Gary. Gary uses the accrual method of accounting. Phil claims that Gary owes $10,000 for the services. Gary admits owing Phil $6,000, but contests the remaining $4,000. How much can Gary deduct?

88 Business Deduction: Accrual Method
Best Corporation uses the accrual method of accounting and is engaged in the business of painting automobiles. Best Corporation provides a five year warranty for new vehicles and a two year warranty for used vehicles. Best Corporation’s financial accounting reports include a reserve (i.e., liability) for estimated warranty expense and deduct an amount as an expense on an annual basis. Is the warranty expense deductible for tax purposes before the warranty claim is actually made?

89 Business Deduction: Accrual Method
On December 20 of the current year, Chris, an accrual method taxpayer, enters into a binding contract with Pat to have Pat clean and paint the exterior of Chris’ business building. Under the terms of the contract, the work is to be done in March of the following year. The total cost of the job is $4,000. Chris pays 10% down at the time the contract is signed. How much may Chris deduct in the current year?

90 Business Deduction: Accrual Method
Dawn is a calendar year, accrual method taxpayer. Every year at the end of October, Dawn enters into a contract with Sam to provide snow removal services for the parking lots at Dawn’s business. This contract extends for five months through the end of March of the following year. How much may Dawn deduct in the current year?

91 Non Deductible Business Expenses: Fines & Penalties
The delivery truck of Pizza Shack often has to park illegally to deliver their pizza on time. As a consequence, Pizza Shack pays approximately $7,000 per year in parking fines. Is the expense deductible?

92 Expenses Relating to an Illegal Activity
 Tom runs an illegal bookie operation for an organized crime ring. Last year he spent $14,500 on rent and utilities for his gambling operation and an additional $20,000 to hire a thug to break the legs of customers who did not pay their gambling debts. Are these expenses deductible?

93 Political Contributions & Lobbying Activities
 Kate is a senior partner of a large New York law firm. During the year, she flies to Washington, D.C., to testify before a Congressional subcommittee with regard to proposed changes in the Social Security taxes imposed on employers. Such changes directly affect her business because they affect the amount of taxes she must pay on behalf of her employees. Are Kate’s expenses deductible?

94 Executive Compensation

95 Capital Expenditures Acquiring or constructing a property that has a useful life that extends substantially beyond the end of the tax year. Permanent improvements made to: increase the value of the property; substantially prolong the useful life of the property; or adapt the property to a new use.

96 Capital Expenditures  Determine whether any of the following expenditures may be deducted currently or must be capitalized: Purchase of the copyright to the song “Stormy Weather” Purchase of a copying machine that will be used in an accounting firm. c. Purchase of paper used in the copying machine. d. Repair and maintenance of the copying machine. e. Legal fees incurred in purchasing the property on which the taxpayer’ business is located.

97 Capital Expenditures  Pete’s Big Business, Inc. outgrows the office building it has occupied for the last several years. Rather than buy or lease an existing structure, Pete commissions an architect to design a new office building. The architect’s fees are $120,000. The building costs $15 million to construct. The office furniture and fixtures cost an additional $1.2 million. How much of these expenditures are currently deductible?

98 Investigation of a New Business
Taxpayer is in a business the same as or similar to that being investigated Business acquired Business not acquired Taxpayer is not in a business the same as or similar to that being investigated

99 Related Party Transactions
Losses from property transactions between related parties What is related party? Unpaid expense arising out of a transaction between related parties

100 Transactions between Related Parties
 Alice, Craig (Alice’s husband) and Beth each own a third of the outstanding shares of First Corporation. Alice sells a building she owns with a basis of $250,000 to First Corporation for $200,000. Is she able to deduct the $50,000 loss?

101 Transactions between Related Parties
 Assume two separate scenarios in which Sam sells a tract of land during the current year (scenario one for $17,000; scenario two for $8,000). In each case assume that Sam purchased the land from his father, Frank, for $10,000. Frank’s basis at the time of the original sale was $15,000 in each case. Was Frank able to deduct his loss at the time of the original sale to Sam? What is Sam’s recognized loss/gain at each of the two scenarios of the subsequent sale?

102 Expenses Related to Exempt Income
Chuck borrows $100,000 at 5% rate of interest and invests the $100,000 in a municipal bond yielding 8%. Is the interest expense on his loan deductible?

103 Charitable Contribution
Qualified donees: Donative intent: Time of recognition: Valuation of contribution: Limits on deduction Charitable contribution carryover

104 Research & Experimental Activities
What is it? Costs for the development of an product, invention, and improvement of such existing property Deduction method: Expense in year paid or incurred, Defer and amortize over period of 60 months

105 Cost Recovery Capitalization vs. Expensing
Goal of Cost Recovery Allowance Types of Cost Recovery Allowance Depreciation Amortization Depletion

106 Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System
Coverage Real vs. Personal Property Eligible Property: Property is used in business or is income producing activity; and Property has determinable useful life; or Property declines in value due to exhaustion, wear & tear, or obsolescence

107 Cost Recovery A cost recovery allowance may be taken for which, if any, of the following assets: -Copyright -An office building -Land on which an office building sits -A valuable original painting placed in the office building lobby -An owner occupied residence

108 Cost Recovery Allowance
Cost recovery formula: Adjusted Basis X Percentage Adjusted Basis Computation: Purchase Price Less Depreciation Plus Capital Improvements Failure to take deduction Conversion of personal use property to business use

109 Cost Recovery Allowance
Depreciation formula: Adjusted Basis times a Percentage Percentage Determination Applicable recovery period Applicable convention Applicable depreciation method

110 Cost Recovery for Real Property
Applicable Depreciation Method: Straight line Applicable Convention: Mid month convention Applicable Recovery Period: Residential real property years Non Residential real property- 39 years

111 Cost Recovery for Personal Property
Applicable Recovery period: Applicable Convention: Mid year convention Mid quarter convention Applicable Depreciation Method Double Declining or Straight line

112 179 Election Expense of acquisition in lieu of capitalization
Tangible personal business property Placed in service during the year of election MACRS applies for unused portion of cost Large scale property acquisition limitation Taxable income limitation

113 179 Election Pam owns an unincorporated manufacturing business. In 2011, she purchases and places in service $2,050,000 of qualifying equipment for use in her business. Pam’s taxable income from the business (before deducting any Sec. 179 amount) is $40,000. How much can Pam expense under Section 179?

114 Mixed Used Personal Property
What is mixed use personal property? Listed property Predominant use test Predominant business use Predominant personal use Luxury automobiles restrictions


116 Bona Fide Debtor- Creditor Relationship
Intent test Does a note or other written instrument exist which evidences an obligation to repay? Is a reasonable rate of interest stated? Would a person who is unrelated to the debtor make the loan? Have the parties established a definite schedule of repayment?

117 Bona fide Debt Sherrill loaned her sister Penny $5,000 three years ago. No written agreement was ever entered into. Penny had never made any payments to Sherrill, and Sherrill never tried to collect from Penny. This year, Penny filed for bankruptcy and told Sherrill that she would not be able to repay any of the $5,000 loan. Determine Sherrill’s tax treatment for the loan for the current year.

118 Bad Debts Charge off method is utilized Type of debt
Loan or debt instrument Account receivable Cash Method Accrual Method tax benefit rule

119 Bad Debt Loss Ted, who uses the accrual method of accounting, sells inventory on account for $2,000. Buyer pays $200 down and makes no further payments. How much bad debt deduction, if any, does Ted get? Will your answer change if he follows a cash method of accounting?

120 Business Bad Debt When does a business bad debt arise?
Creditor is in the business of lending money; or Proximate relationship between creation of the debt and taxpayer’s business What type of loss is recognized? Complete & partial loss are recognized

121 Non Business Bad Debt When does a non-business bad debt arise?
What type of loss is recognized? Partial loss cannot be recognized

122 Bad Debt Lisa is engaged in the advertising business. If clients occasionally need additional funds to meet their cash-flow obligations, Lisa lends them money so that she can retain those clients. If any of these loans become worthless, can Lisa deduct them as bad debt losses?

123 Worthless Securities Complete loss is required
Capital loss is recognized

124 Worthless Securities On November 1, 2011, Y Corporation purchased stock for $100,000. The stock became worthless on March 1, Is there a deduction? If so, when, how much and what type?

125 Worthless Securities Small business stock exception
Direct purchase by taxpayer Small investment Limited corporate equity

126 Worthless Securities Tony, a single taxpayer, incorporated Waffle, Inc. three years ago by contributing $70,000 in exchange for the stock. Waffle, Inc. owns and operates a small restaurant. Unfortunately, Waffle, Inc.’s business never really became profitable. In February of the current year, Waffle, Inc. has filed for bankruptcy. Tony did not receive anything for his stock. What deductions can Tony claim in his personal tax return?

127 Casualty and Theft Loss
Identifiable event Damaging to the property Sudden- swift Unexpected- Ordinarily unanticipated Unusual- Not a day to day occurrence

128 Casualty Loss Fire, storm floods, vandalism
Damage to building due to unusual jet sonic boom Damage to automobile due to an accident that is not the fault of the taxpayer Steady weakening of a building caused by normal wind Damage to carpet caused by moths

129 When to Deduct the Loss Casualty Theft
Reasonable prospect of recovery limitation Treatment of reimbursement

130 Measuring the Loss Complete loss of business or investment property
Partial loss of business or investment property Complete or partial loss of personal use property Per incident limitation Total amount limitation

131 Casualty Loss Troy purchased a home for $25,000 several years ago. Through the years, the value of the home appreciated until it was appraised at $125,000 in the current year. Shortly after the appraisal, a flood sweeps through the area, severely damaging Troy’s home and reducing its value to $90,000. Troy does not have any flood insurance. Before addressing AGI limitation and per incident limitation, what is Troy’s casualty loss deduction?

132 Casualty Loss A machine that Beth uses in her
A machine that Beth uses in her business is completely destroyed by fire. At the time of the fire, the adjusted basis of the machine is $5,000 and its FMV is $3,000. How much could Beth deduct?

133 Net Operating Losses Definition of net operating loss
Business losses from any one year can offset past or future income Carryover period Must carryback to 2 prior years, then carryforward to 20 future years May make an irrevocable election to just carryforward When there are NOLs from two or more years, use on a FIFO basis

134 Net Operating Losses Warren Corp. has a NOL for 2011 in the amount of $60,000. How must Warren use the NOL?

135 Limitations on Loss Deductions
At risk limitation Passive loss limitation

136 At-Risk Limits The amount of a taxpayer’s economic investment in an activity Can deduct losses from activity only to extent taxpayer is at-risk Any losses disallowed due to at-risk limitation are carried forward until at-risk amount is increased At-risk limitations must be computed for each activity of the taxpayer

137 At Risk Limitations- At Risk Amount
Cash contributed Basis of property contributed Debt for which the taxpayer is personally liable Adjusted basis of property pledged as security for a debt, where the property is not used in the activity Taxpayer’s share of annual income relating to the activity less, share of annual losses or withdrawals

138 At Risk Limitation Siskel Ebert, a prominent movie critic, buys a motion picture for $500,000. He puts up $50,000 of his own money and $450,000 from a nonrecourse loan. In the first year of distribution, the movie loses $80,000. What are the tax consequences?

139 Limitations on passive losses
Generally, passive losses can only offset passive income, i.e., they cannot reduce active or portfolio income Disallowed losses are suspended and carried forward Suspended losses must be allocated to specific activities Suspended losses are deductible in year related activity is disposed of in a fully taxable transaction

140 Passive Loss Limits: Active Income
Wages, salary, and other payments for services rendered Income/losses from self-employed trade or business activity in which taxpayer materially participates Gain from sale or disposition of assets used in an active trade or business Income from intangible property created by taxpayer

141 Passive Loss Limits: Portfolio income
Interest, dividends, annuities, and certain royalties not derived in the ordinary course of business Gains/losses from disposition of assets that produce portfolio income or held for investment

142 Passive Loss Limits: Passive Income
Passive losses defined Losses from trade or business activities in which taxpayer does not materially participate, and Rental activities

143 Passive Loss Limitation
During the year, Kasi, a CPA, reports $100,000 of active business income from his CPA practice. He also owns two passive activities, from which he earned $10,000 of income from Activity A, and incurred a $15,000 loss from activity B. Can Kasi offset his losses from activity B against any of the other income he earned?

144 Material Participation
Definition: Participation that is regular, continuous, and substantial What is regular, continuous and substantial: Taxpayer participated for more than 500 hours Taxpayer participated for more than 100 hours and no one else had greater participation Taxpayer’s participation constituted substantially all of the participation in activity

145 Material Participation
Roger’s auto repair shop shows a taxable loss of $25,000 in year one. Year one is the first taxable year for the repair shop. The shop has five full time employees. Roger, however, works at the shop for only 600 hours per year. State the amount of loss, if any, that would be deductible?   

146 Rental Activities General Rule: Exceptions Real Estate Professionals
Half of services test Minimum hours test Rental Real Estate Deduction Active participation test Minimum ownership test

147 Rental Activities On January 1, year one, Juan purchases an apartment building. The apartment building shows a net loss for the year of $30,000. Juan has full time employee manage the building; however, Juan interviews all prospective tenants and makes the final decision on major repairs. Juan spends about 110 hours a year on the building and has no other investments. His adjusted gross income is $110,000. How much of the loss may Juan use to offset his salary income?


149 Questions Is there a realized gain or loss?
Is the gain or loss recognized? Is the gain or loss ordinary or capital? What is the basis of the acquired replacement property?

150 Determination of Gain or Loss
Realized gain or loss Difference between amount realized from sale or other disposition of the asset and its adjusted basis Sale or other disposition Includes trade-ins, casualties, condemnations, thefts

151 Determination of Gain or Loss
Alice owns land that is held for investment and has a basis of $20,000. The land is taken by the city by right of eminent domain, and she receives a payment of $30,000 for the land. Is this condemnation treated as a sale or disposition? Has Alice realized a gain? If so, how much?

152 Determination of Gain or Loss
Amount realized from disposition: Total consideration received- cash, FMV of property received, loans assumed by buyer Reduced by any selling expenses

153 Determination of Gain or Loss
Anna exchanges land subject to a liability of $20,000 and an adjusted basis of $42,000 for $35,000 of stock owned by Mario. Mario takes the land subject to the liability. What is the realized amount on this sale transaction? What is the realized gain?

154 Determination of Gain or Loss
Doug sells stock of Laser Corporation, which has a cost basis of $10,000, for $17,000. Doug pays a sales commission of $300 to sell the stock. What is the amount realized and the gain realized?

155 Adjusted Basis = Original cost + capital additions - capital recoveries Capital additions: Cost of improvements to the property that are capital in nature Capital recoveries: Depreciation or cost recovery allowances Casualty and theft losses

156 Basis Consideration Original basis of an asset is generally its cost
Bargain purchase assets have a basis equal to their FMV Bargain amount may be income to purchaser (e.g., employee = compensation; shareholder = dividend)

157 Bargain Purchase Ramona is an employee of S&S Development Company. The company recently subdivided and offered lots for sale in the Porter Ranch area at a price of $200,000. S&S sells Ramona a lot for $150,000. How much gross income does Ramona have from the purchase of the property? What is her basis in the property?

158 Bargain Purchase Allegra wishes to purchase a Lamborghini. She knows that such cars generally sell for about $75,000. However, she searches on E-Bay and locates an owner of such a car, who purchased it three months ago and is now having difficulties making monthly payments. Allegra buys the property from him for only $45,000. Does Allegra have gross income from the purchase and what is her basis in the property?

159 Basket Purchase Relative Value Allocation: Going Concern Purchase:
Must allocate basis to each asset obtained based on relative FMV of assets Going Concern Purchase: Assign purchase price to assets (excluding goodwill) to extent of their total FMV Residual amount is goodwill

160 Gift Basis FMV> Donor’s Basis:
The donee’s basis is the donor’s basis FMV< Donor’s Basis: The donee has a dual basis: Loss Basis: FMV at the time of gift Gain Basis: same as donor’s adjusted basis

161 Gift Basis Kevin makes a gift of property with a basis of $350 to Janet when it has a $425 FMV. What would be Janet’s realized loss/gain if she sells the property for $450? for $330?

162 Property Acquired from a Decedent
Inherited property is always treated as long-term property Generally, beneficiary’s basis in inherited assets will be the FMV of the asset at decedent’s date of death Exception: If the executor/administrator of estate elects alternate valuation date, basis is FMV on such date

163 Property Acquired from a Decedent
Dianna inherits property having a $60,000 FMV at the date of the decedent’s death. The decedent’s basis in the property is $72,000. The alternate valuation date is not elected. What is Dianna’s basis in the property?

164 Personal Use Property Converted to Business Use
Gain basis Loss basis Depreciation basis

165 Personal Use Property Converted to Business Use
Craig owns a personal use asset with a basis of $80,000 and a $50,000 FMV. How much losses may Craig deduct if he sells it for its FMV? If Craig converts the asset to business use and then immediately sells it, how much loss may be recognized?

166 Property Converted to Business Use
Olga owns a boat that cost $2,000 and is used for personal enjoyment. At a time when the boat has a $1,400 FMV, Olga transfers the boat to her business of operating a marina. What is the basis of the boat in Olga’s business for purpose of determining depreciation?

167 Disallowed Losses from Disposition of Property
Personal Use Property Related Party Transaction Wash Sales

168 Disposition of Personal Use Property
Bruce Evans owns a personal use car that has an adjusted basis of $40,000. The fair market value of the car is $35,000. Calculate the realized and recognized loss if Bruce sells the car for $35,000.

169 Disallowed Losses- Related Parties
Losses on sale of assets between related parties are disallowed Right to offset Only available to original transferee Not available for sales of personal use assets

170 Wash Sales Loss on sale of security
Purchase of substantially identical security Purchase done within close time proximity sale of security Basis of new acquired security

171 Wash Sales Leslie realizes $10,000 in short term capital gains through dealings in the stock market during the current year. To generate capital losses as a way of offsetting the capital gains, she sells her Edison Corporation stock for only $8,000, even though she originally purchased it for $16,000. Nonetheless, Leslie feels that Edison Corporation is still a good investment and wants to retain the stock. Can Leslie deduct the $8,000 loss if she sells the stock she owns and repurchases a similar number of shares of Edison stock two weeks later?

172 Non Tax Recognition of Property Disposition
Like Kind Exchange Involuntary Conversions Sale of Principal Residence

173 Like-Kind Exchanges §1031 requires nontaxable treatment for gains and losses when: Asset exchanged must be like-kind in nature Exchange of qualified assets Exchange is simultaneous

174 Like Kind Exchange Real Estate Personal Property
Improved for unimproved realty qualifies Commercial for residential realty qualifies Personal Property Office furniture & equipment Computers and peripheral equipment Airplanes Automobiles and taxis Buses Light general purpose truck Heavy general purpose truck

175 Like Exchange Gail exchanges an office building with a $400,000 adjusted basis for an airplane with a $580,000 FMV to be used in business. Is this a like-kind exchange?   

176 Like Exchange Bob transfers a personal computer used in his trade for a printer to be used in his trade. Is this a like kind exchange?

177 Like Exchange Renee transfers an airplane that she uses in her business for a heavy general purpose truck in use in her business. Is this a like kind exchange?

178 Exchange of Qualified Assets
Assets involved are used in trade or business or held for production of income inventory, securities, and partnership interests do not qualify

179 The Exchange Requirement
 Dawn’s automobile is held only for personal use. She exchanges the automobile, which has a $10,000 basis, for stock of AT&T with a $12,000 FMV. The stock will be held for investment. Is the gain recognized?

180 Simultaneous Exchange
The exchange of the two like-kind properties must be simultaneous Deferred exchange exception

181 Boot What is it: What is its Impact: Gain Recognition Only:
Any property involved in the exchange that is not like-kind property is “boot” What is its Impact: The receipt of boot causes gain recognition equal to the lesser of boot received (FMV) or gain realized Gain Recognition Only: No loss is recognized even when boot is received

182 Receipt of Boot Mario exchanges business equipment with a $50,000 adjusted basis for $10,000 cash and business equipment with a $65,000 FMV. What is the realized and recognized gain?

183 Receipt of Boot Mary exchanges business equipment with a $70,000 adjusted basis for $20,000 cash and business equipment with a $65,000 FMV. What is her realized and recognized gain, if any?

184 Basis of Property Received as Part of an Exchange
Basis in like-kind asset received: FMV of new asset – Gain not recognized + Loss not recognized Basis in boot received is FMV of property

185 Involuntary Conversion
May defer gain recognition if: Involuntary conversion The destruction, theft, seizure, condemnation Reinvestment of the conversion amount Amount of reinvestment >= amount realized Reinvestment in similar property Reinvestment within specified time

186 Involuntary Conversion
Business or Personal Use Property Basis of New Property: Cost less deferred gain Partial Reinvestment Amount recognized is lesser of realized gain or non-reinvested amount Inapplicable to Losses Permissive in Nature


188 Questions Is there a realized gain or loss?
Is the gain or loss recognized? Is the gain or loss ordinary or capital? What is the basis of the acquired replacement property?

189 Capital Gain Tax Cut Windfall
Year Realizations Revenues 2002 $269 $49 2003 323 51 2004 499 74 2005 690 101 2006 798 117 2007 863 127 Source: Congressional Budget Office, January 2008

190 Total Federal Revenues

191 Why Separate Capital Gains/Losses from Ordinary Gains/Losses?
Lower Tax Rate: Long-term capital gains may be taxed at a lower rate than ordinary gains Limitation on Deduction: The deduction of a net capital loss may be limited

192 Proper Classification of Gains and Losses
Depends on three factors The tax character of the property Must be capital asset, not ordinary asset The manner of the property’s disposition By sale or exchange only The holding period of the property Must be long term

193 Capital Assets Assets held for Investment Personal Use Assets

194 Non Capital Assets Inventory Notes and accounts receivables
Accrual Method Cash Method Real property & depreciable personal property used in trade or business (§1231 assets) Creative works created by taxpayer

195 Inventory Define: Property must be held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of taxpayer’s business Automobiles as Inventory Securities as Inventory Real property as Inventory

196 Manner of Disposition - Sale or Exchange is Required to recognize capital gain/loss - Are the following transactions considered a “sale or an exchange”? Worthless securities Option transfer Patent transfer

197 Sale or Exchange- Worthless Securities
Charles purchased $40,000 of bonds issued by the Jet Corporation in March In February 2012, Jet is declared bankrupt, and its bonds are worthless. Can Charles recognize a capital loss?

198 Sale or Exchange: Options
On March 2, 2011, Dina pays $270 for an option to acquire 100 shares of Arkansas Corporation stock for $30 per share at any time before December 11, As a result of an increase in the market value of the Arkansas stock, the market price of the option increases and Dina sells the option for $600 on August 2, What type of gain must Dina recognize?

199 Sale or Exchange: Patent
Transfer all substantial rights to a patent is the equivalent of a sale Treated as a long term capital gain Individual ownership: the transferor must be the individual creator

200 Sale or Exchange: Patent
Clay invents a small utensil used to peel shrimp. He has a patent on the utensil and transfers all rights to the patent to a manufacturing company. Clay receives $100,000 plus 40 cents per utensil sold. Clay’s cost basis in the patent is $45,000. What type of gain must Clay recognize?

201 Holding Period Short-term Asset held for 1 year or less Long-term
Asset held for more than 1 year Holding period starts on the day after the property is acquired and includes the day of disposition

202 Holding Period On June 1, 2011, Alfred sells stock held as an investment and recognizes a gain. If the stock was purchased on May 31, 2010, what type of a gain should Alfred recognize in his tax return?

203 Holding Period Non Taxable Exchanges Disallowed Loss Transactions
Property Received as Gift Carryover basis FMV basis Property Received from a Decedent

204 Holding Period Cindy receives a capital asset as a gift from Marc on July 4, 2011, when the asset has a $4,000 FMV. Marc acquired the property on April 1, 2011, for $3,400. If Cindy sells the asset on April 14, 2012 for $3,800, how would any gain/loss is classified?

205 Holding Period The executor of Paul’s estate sells certain securities for $41,000 on September 2, 2011, which are valued in the estate at their FMV of $40,000 on June 5, 2011, the date of Paul’s death. Paul purchased these securities six months before his death for $30,000. What type of gain does the estate have?

206 Tax Treatment of Capital Gains and Losses of Non-Corporate Taxpayers
Short Term Capital Gains (STCG) No preferential tax rate available Long Term Capital Gains (LTCG) Regular LTCG- preferential tax rate available Exceptions: 28% Property Collectibles Small Business Stock 25% Property Unrecaptured Section 1250 gain

207 Offsetting Against Capital Gains
Group All Gains & All Losses for Each Category Net Each Category In the Long Term Capital Categories, Net LTCL Against Highest Taxed Capital Gain First Netting any STCL Against Highest Taxed Capital Gain First Netting Against Ordinary Income

208 Netting Sandy has a salary of $100,000. If she sells a non-personal use asset during the year and has a $40,000 loss, why is it important that the asset not be a capital asset?

209 Netting Bob has gross income of $60,000 before considering capital gains and losses. If Bob has Net Long Term Capital Gain (NLTCG) of $10,000 and Net Short Term Capital Loss (NSTCL) of $15,000, how much, if any, could Bob deduct against his ordinary income?

210 Netting Last year, Milt had a NSTCL of $8,000 and a NLTCG of $2,600. During the current year he sells a capital asset and generates a STCG of $800. How much capital losses could Milt deduct from his ordinary income during last year and this year?

211 Netting In the current year, Beth has NSTCL of $2,800 and NLTCL of $2,000. Does Beth have any loss carryover for next year? How much? Is it short term or long term carryover loss?

212 Netting Leroy, whose tax rate is 35%, has NSTCL of $20,000, a $25,000 LTCG from the sale of a rare stamp held for 16 months and an $18,000 LTCG from the sale of stock held for three years. What is the effect of these gains and losses on his total tax liability?

213 Netting Elizabeth, whose tax rate is 35%, has NSTCG of $40,000, a $30,000 LTCG from the sale of an antique, a $10,000 LTCG in the 25% property group, and a $22,000 LTCL from the sale of stock held for four years. What is the effect of these gains and losses on her total tax liability?

214 Capital Gains & Losses of Corporate Taxpayer
No preferential tax rate No offsetting against ordinary income Carryback and carryforward period

215 Capital Gains & Losses of Corporate Taxpayer
The Peach Corporation has income from operations of $200,000, a NSTCG of $40,000, and NLTCL of $56,000 during the current year. How much of the loss can Peach Corporation offset against its income from operations?

216 Section 1231 Asset Depreciable personal property used in business
Real property used in a business purchased intangibles Property held greater than 1 year Net §1231 loss = ordinary loss Net §1231 gain = long-term capital gain

217 Capital Gains & Losses of Corporate Taxpayer
Dawn sold a machinery for $20,000 gain. In the same year, she also sold land for $12,000 loss. Both properties were used in her business and were owned by Dawn for three years. What kind of gain/loss must Dawn recognize?

218 Depreciation Recapture
Why §1231 gain is recaptured sometimes? The impact of recapture Gain recapture characterizes gains that would otherwise be capital as ordinary income Properties subject to recapture: §1231 assets subject to depreciation are subject to depreciation recapture when disposed of at a gain The recapture provisions: §1245 §1250

219 §1245 Recapture §1245 property: Depreciable personal property
Purchased intangibles Applies to gain only Recapture amount: Total accumulated depreciation will be recaptured as ordinary income The gain in excess of depreciation recapture will be §1231 gain

220 Section 1245 Recapture Buckeye Corporation owns the following assets acquired in 2010: a truck, a purchased patent, an office building and a land, all of which are used in business. Which one of these properties are Section 1245 property?

221 Section 1245 Recapture Adobe Corporation sells equipment used in its trade for $95,000. The equipment was acquired several years ago for $110,000. The equipment’s adjusted basis is $60,000 because of $50,000 of depreciation was deducted. Will Adobe have to recognize 1231 gain? What if the equipment is sold for $117,000?

222 §1250 Recapture §1250 property: Depreciable real property sold at a gain Recapture amount: Recapture potential is limited to excess of accelerated depreciation taken on asset over depreciation that would have been deductible if straight-line depreciation had been used Tax rate: Recaptured gain: ordinary income Nonrecaptured gain: LTCG 25% Property Section 1231 gain: excess of sale prices over original purchase price



225 Tax Formula Income (broadly conceived) $x,xxx Less: Exclusions (x,xxx)
Gross Income $x,xxx Less: Deductions for AGI (x,xxx) AGI $x,xxx Less: The greater of- Total itemized deductions or the standard deduction (x,xxx) Personal & dependency exemptions (x,xxx) Taxable Income $x,xxx

226 Exclusions from Gross Income
Child Support Gifts & Inheritances Scholarships Damages Loss of Income Expenses Incurred Property Damage Personal Injury Compensatory Damages Punitive Damages

227 Scholarships Becky is awarded a $7,000 per year scholarship by State University. Becky spends $5,000 of the scholarship for tuition, books and supplies, and $2,000 is for room and board. In addition, Becky is a graduate student assistant and the University grants her a waiver of half of her $6,000 annual tuition. How much is Becky taxed on?

228 Items Included in Gross Income
Compensation Business Income Interest Rents & Royalties Alimony Unemployment Compensation Prizes and Awards

229 Alimony Helen earned $500,000 and, as a result of her divorce, she was required to pay William $250,000. Is this payment included in William’s gross income?

230 Alimony As a result of a divorce, Dawn receives stock that she has purchased with her former husband during their marriage. They had purchased the stock for $12,000. At the time of the divorce, the stock was worth $14,000. Assume the transfer is not considered as alimony. How will this transfer affect the parties’ taxable income? What if Dawn subsequently sells the stock for $15,000?

231 Prizes and Awards General rule: FMV of item is included in income
Exception One: Non commercial achievement No substantial services are due Redirected to non for profit Not self nominated income Exception Two: Employee achievement awards (up to $400) of tangible personal property made in recognition of length of service or safety achievement

232 Deductions for AGI Ordinary and necessary business expense
One half of self employment tax paid Moving expenses Capital loss deduction Alimony paid IRA contribution

233 Standard Deduction The basic standard deduction (BSD) amount depends on filing status of taxpayer Filing status Single $5,800 MFJ, SS $11,600 HH $8,500 MFS $5,800

234 Standard Deduction Additional standard deduction (ASD)
For taxpayers age 65 or older and/or legally blind Filing Status Single $1,450 MFJ, SS ,150 HH ,450 MFS ,150

235 SD Limit for Person Claimed as Dependent
In 2011, individual claimed as dependent has a BSD limited to the greater of: $950 or $300 plus earned income (but not exceeding normal BSD) ASD amount(s) still available

236 Itemized Deductions Medical Expenses Taxes
Personal & Real Property Taxes State, Local & Foreign Taxes Interest Business Interest- For AGI Personal Interest- Not deductible Interest on Student Loan-For AGI Investment Interest- For AGI Qualified Residence Interest- Itemized Charitable Contributions

237 Medical Expenses During the current year, Kelly incurs qualified medical expenditures of $3,000. Her adjusted gross income for the year is $30,000. What is the itemized deduction for medical expense?

238 Investment Interest Expense
Skip borrows $100,000 from a bank at 10% interest, interest only for three years, to buy Pork Belly common stock. In year one the stock pays dividends of $8,000. In year two the Pork Belly stock pays no dividends but Skip receives $3,000 in dividends from some Growth Company stock that he inherited. In year three the Pork Belly stock pays $25,000 in dividends. How much of the $10,000 of annual interest can Skip deduct each year?

239 Qualified Residence Interest
Loans covered: acquisition or equity loans on qualified residence Qualified Residence Acquisition Indebtedness Home Equity Loan Points Prepayment Penalty

240 Charitable Contributions
Contributions must be made to domestic organizations Contributor must have donative intent and expect nothing in return No deduction is allowed for the contribution of services (except for unreimbursed expenses) Valuation Substantiation requirement Limit on deduction

241 Charitable Contribution
Cindy, a gym teacher, volunteered to work for a week with handicapped children as part of an athletic event sponsored by a charitable organization. Cindy spent $40 on transportation and $200 on lodging in connection with the event. If Cindy had been paid her normal fee for her services, she would have received $500. What amount can Cindy deduct as a charitable contribution?

242 Charitable Contribution
Mona says: “It costs a low income taxpayer more to make a donation to charity than it costs a high income taxpayer.” Is Mona correct? Explain.

243 Miscellaneous Itemized Deductions
Professional dues to membership organizations Uniforms Fees incurred for the preparation of one’s tax return for tax litigation before the IRS Job hunting costs Hobby losses Unreimbursed employee expenses

244 Exemptions Amount One Exemption Per Person Personal Exemptions
Dependency Exemptions Qualifying Child Qualifying Relative

245 Qualifying Child Relationship Domicile Age Joint return
Citizen or residency

246 Qualifying Relative A dependency exemption may be claimed for each individual that meets all of the following tests: Support Gross income Relationship (or household member) Joint return Citizen or residency

247 Qualifying Relative- Support
Taxpayer must provide more than 50% of the dependent’s support Only amounts expended are considered in the support test Scholarships of children are not considered in the support test

248 Qualifying Relative- Gross Income
Dependent’s gross income cannot be greater than amount allowed for an exemption Exception: No gross income limitation if dependent is child of taxpayer AND either: i) Less than age 19, OR ii) Less than age 24 and a full-time student

249 Taxable Income General Rule:
Tax return must be filed if gross income is ≥ the sum of the standard deduction and exemption amount

250 Filing Status There are 5 filing statuses Single
Married, filing jointly Surviving spouse (qualifying widow/er) Head of household Married, filing separately Filing status affects tax rate brackets, standard deduction, and other amounts

251 Kiddie Tax Limitations on Shifting Income to Dependents:
No Personal Exemption Lower Standard Deduction Parent’s Tax Rate on Net Unearned Income (NUI) -Child must be under age 19 (or under age 24 if full time student) at end of year -NUI generally equals unearned income less $1,900

252 Credits Adoption Expense Credit Child Tax Credit Child Care Credit
Education Tax Credit American Opportunity Credit Life Time Learning Credit Earned Income Credit

253 Adoption Expenses Credit
Credit for qualified adoption expenses incurred in adoption of eligible child (fees, court costs, attorney fees) Maximum credit in 2010 is $12,170 Eligible child is one that is Less than 18 years of age, or Physically or mentally handicapped Nonrefundable credit Excess may be carried forward for five years

254 Child Tax Credit Credit amount is $1,000 per child
Eligible children are: Under age 17, US citizen, and Claimed as dependent on taxpayer’s tax return

255 Child & Dependent Care Credit
General qualifications for credit Must have employment related care costs for a Dependent under age 13, or Handicapped dependent or spouse Credit amount Eligible care costs x 20% to 35% depending on AGI Amount of costs that qualify is the lesser of actual costs or $3,000 for one qualified individual, and $6,000 for two or more qualified individuals Amount of eligible care costs cannot exceed lower of taxpayer’s or spouse’s earned income

256 Education Tax Credit 2 education tax credits are available
American Opportunity Credit credit Lifetime learning credit Both nonrefundable credits are available for qualifying tuition and related expenses Room, board, and book costs are ineligible for the credits Undergraduate degrees, graduate degrees, or vocational training.

257 Educational Tax Credit-Maximum Credit
American Opportunity Tax Credit maximum per eligible student is $2,500 per year for first 4 years of postsecondary education 100% of first $2,000 of qualifying expenses plus 25% of next $2,000 of qualifying expenses Lifetime learning credit maximum per taxpayer is 20% of qualifying expenses up to $10,000 per year Cannot be claimed in same year the American Opportunity Tax Credit is claimed


259 Employee vs. Independent Contractor
Why Proper Classification is Important? Expense Deductions Payment of Taxes and Benefits Liability How to Distinguish? Degree of Control Tools of Work Method of Payment Skills Required Permanency

260 Employee vs. Independent Contractor
Truck drivers, who are owner operated, are engaged under a contract with an interstate trucking company. The truck drivers selected their own routes and were paid a percentage of the company’s receipts for shipments. Are the truck drivers considered employees or independent contractors?

261 Exclusions from Gross Income Available to Employees
Accident & Health Insurance Plans Premiums Payment of Medical Care Benefits Long Term Care Benefits Meals & Lodging Life Insurance Tuition Reduction Plans

262 Meals & Lodging Meals: Furnished by Employer Employer’s Convenience
Business Premises Lodging All of the Above Condition of Employment

263 Life Insurance David receives $50,000 of group term life insurance from his employer. He names his long-time companion Fred as beneficiary. Is David subject to tax on the premiums paid by his employer for the life insurance policy? If David dies, is Fred taxed on the $50,000 death benefits?

264 Other Fringe Benefits Dependent care
Up to $5,000 of care costs paid for by employer can be excluded Athletic facilities Value of use of athletic facilities located on employer premises can be excluded Educational assistance programs Up to $5,250 for undergraduate and graduate education is excludible

265 Other Fringe Benefits Adoption assistance programs
Exclusion limited to $10,630 Qualified transportation expenses Parking Commuter pass No additional costs services: No additional cost to employer Ordinary course of employer’s business

266 No Additional Cost Service
Dean, an airline reservation clerk for Friendly Airlines, is allowed to fly free of charge on Friendly Airlines flights. Dean is required to fly on a stand by basis and is permitted to board only when there otherwise would be unoccupied seats. Is the flight taxable to Dean?

267 Other Fringe Benefits Qualified employee discounts Goods Services
Working condition fringe benefit De minimis fringe benefit

268 Employee Discount Mary is an accountant for the Eastside cleaning Service. The business pays house cleaners $5 an hour to clean customers’ homes. The gross receipts of the business for the year were $500,000 and its total expenses were $450,000. Employees of Eastside are permitted to purchase cleaning services at a 20% discount. Mary hires the service to clean her apartment once a week for $40. The ordinary price for such cleaning would have been $50. Is Mary subject to tax on the $10 discount?

269 Working Condition Fringe
Mark is a professional hockey player for the Boston Brawlers. During the off-season Mark lives in Mystic, Connecticut. The Brawlers purchase a membership for Mark in a Mystic health club at a cost of $500 and hire a private trainer at a cost of $1,000 to supervise Mark’s workouts. Is Mark taxed on the cost of the club membership and trainer?

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