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Thursday Lecture – Leaf, Stem and Root Crops Reading: Textbook, Chapter 7.

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Presentation on theme: "Thursday Lecture – Leaf, Stem and Root Crops Reading: Textbook, Chapter 7."— Presentation transcript:

1 Thursday Lecture – Leaf, Stem and Root Crops Reading: Textbook, Chapter 7

2 Baby carrots – a product of the “Soccer Mom” age Baby carrots are produced by using specially bred forms that produce a long, thin storage root. The roots are carefully selected to eliminate discolored or malformed ones, and then are sliced into short pieces (2-3 inches). The pieces are further checked for color (they must have no hint of green) and are sent through a lathe device that smoothes the ends. The final product is ready to eat in a convenient form.

3 Quiz

4 1.Name a vegetable for each category of what we actually eat: petiole: entire leaf: inflorescence: 2. Where was the potato domesticated? What part of the plant do we eat?

5 Asparagus – Eat Your Lilies See Fig. 7.25, p. 177

6 Onions – Allium cepa See Fig. 7.27, p. 179

7 Leeks – Another Allium See Fig. 7.27, p. 179

8 Bulbs Big buds on short stems Adventitious Roots Succulent Storage Leaves Stem Bulbs

9 Corms: short fat underground stems Corms

10 Rhizomes: simple underground stems Hydrocotyle Petioles reach above the sand Nodes Adventitious Roots Apex of Rhizome Rhizomes

11 Tubers: swollen ends of rhizomes Tubers

12 Bulb - onion Tuber - potato Corm - Crocus STEMS

13 Irish Potato Solanum tuberosum

14 The Amazing Spud - The potato is a short duration crop that produces a large amount of calories in a short period of time - The potato produces more protein and calories per unit area per unit time and per unit of water than any other major plant food. - The ratio of protein to calories, the quality of the protein and the high levels of vitamins and minerals are assets greatly needed in many countries.

15 Potatoes – South American Staple

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19 Potatoes Travel to Europe Frederick the Great encouraging peasants to grow more potatoes

20 Potatoes Travel to Europe Frederick the Great encouraging peasants to grow more potatoes

21 Potatoes Travel to Europe Frederick the Great encouraging peasants to grow more potatoes Vincent van Gogh painting: “The potato eaters” (Belgium)

22 Potato Blight Healthy leaf

23 Potato Blight Healthy leaf Blighted leaf Potato Blight: Phytophthora infestans (fungus)

24 Potato Blight Healthy leaf Blighted leaf Potatoes damaged by blight Potato Blight: Phytophthora infestans (fungus)

25 The Irish Potato Blight Ireland – potato became staple crop in 1800s

26 The Irish Potato Blight Ireland – potato became staple crop in 1800s functionally monoculture – political & cultural considerations 1840s – potato blight hit: population 8 million  6 million

27 The Irish Potato Blight Ireland – potato became staple crop in 1800s functionally monoculture – political & cultural considerations 1840s – potato blight hit: population 8 million  6 million - 1 million people died; 1.5 million people immigrated to Australia & U.S.A.

28 Potato Culture – Increasing Mechanization Holland Potato Farms 100 years apart

29 Improving Potato Yields Despite appearances, not yet a priority for the Green Revolution

30 Tropical Starchy Staples True Yam Dioscorea sp.Africa, Asia, South America TaroColocasia esculentaAsia  tropical Pacific YautiaXanthosoma sp.South America ArrowrootMaranta sp.West Indies/South America ManiocManihot esculentaSouth America Sweet PotatoIpomoea batatasSouth America

31 Tropical Starchy Staples True Yam Dioscorea sp.Africa, Asia, South America TaroColocasia esculentaAsia  tropical Pacific YautiaXanthosoma sp.South America ArrowrootMaranta sp.West Indies/South America ManiocManihot esculentaSouth America Sweet PotatoIpomoea batatasSouth America Tubers

32 Tropical Starchy Staples True Yam Dioscorea sp.Africa, Asia, South America TaroColocasia esculentaAsia  tropical Pacific YautiaXanthosoma sp.South America ArrowrootMaranta sp.West Indies/South America ManiocManihot esculentaSouth America Sweet PotatoIpomoea batatasSouth America Tubers Roots

33 Yams – Another Tuber Dioscorea sp. Monocot vines – different species domesticated independently in various tropical areas

34 Taro – Food from a Corm

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37 Starchy Root Crops – Manioc (Cassava)

38 Cassava – Food for the “Poorest of the Poor” Staple food for >500 million people

39 Cassava – Food for the “Poorest of the Poor” Staple food for >500 million people

40 Cassava – Food for the “Poorest of the Poor” Staple food for >500 million people Most calories per unit area of land (except for sugar cane)

41 Cassava – Food for the “Poorest of the Poor” Staple food for >500 million people Most calories per unit area of land (except for sugar cane) Grows in poor soils

42 Cassava – Food for the “Poorest of the Poor” Staple food for >500 million people Most calories per unit area of land (except for sugar cane) Grows in poor soils Primarily carbohydrate – low in protein, minerals, vitamins

43 Cassava – Food for the “Poorest of the Poor” Staple food for >500 million people Most calories per unit area of land (except for sugar cane) Grows in poor soils Primarily carbohydrate – low in protein, minerals, vitamins Cyanogenic glycosides must be removed before consumption

44 Cassava – Food for the “Poorest of the Poor” Staple food for >500 million people Most calories per unit area of land (except for sugar cane) Grows in poor soils Primarily carbohydrate – low in protein, minerals, vitamins Cyanogenic glycosides must be removed before consumption Deteriorates rapidly after harvest (worthless after 48 hours)

45 Cassava – Food for the “Poorest of the Poor” Staple food for >500 million people Most calories per unit area of land (except for sugar cane) Grows in poor soils Primarily carbohydrate – low in protein, minerals, vitamins Cyanogenic glycosides must be removed before consumption Deteriorates rapidly after harvest (worthless after 48 hours) Low tech crop  no profit for large companies

46 Starchy Root Crops – Sweet Potato Ipomoea batatas – Convolvulaceae (Morning Glory Family)

47 Tuesday Lecture – Stem and Root Crops Reading: Textbook, Chapter 7


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