Presentation on theme: "Explanations of Abnormality"— Presentation transcript:
1Explanations of Abnormality The Cognitive Approach
2MUSTName and Outline the main assumptions of the cognitive approach to abnormalitySHOULDExplain the two key features of the cognitive explanations of abnormality, in more detailCOULDApply the two key features to explaining real life examples of abnormal behaviour
5The Cognitive Model Cognition Real World Thinking Perception Emotion InformationEmotionBehaviourBehaviour
6The Cognitive Model Main assumptions: Abnormal behaviour is caused by abnormal thinking processesWe interact with the world through our mental representation of itIf our mental representations are inaccurate or our ways of reasoning are inadequate then our emotions and behaviour may become disordered
7The Cognitive Model: Main Assumptions Assumption 1: The Cognitive Model of Abnormality assumes that how we think influences how we feel and how we behave. The ways in which we process information (cognition) directly affect the ways we behave. The Cognitive Model suggests that disordered thinking can cause disordered or abnormal behaviour. Disordered thinking includes irrational assumptions and negative views about the self, the world and the future.Assumption 2: The Cognitive Model assumes that cognitive disorders are the result of negative or disorganised thinking and, therefore, they can be made positive or organised. Thoughts can be monitored, evaluated and altered. Individuals can modify their thinking, challenge their irrational cognitions and self-defeating thoughts. So the model assumes cognitive change will lead to behavioural change.
8The Cognitive Model Factors in abnormal behaviour: Inaccurate perceptionPoor reasoning and problem solvingCognitive-emotion relationship assumed to be bi-directional, but cognitive processes given primacyUnderlying reasons for faulty thinking are not considered especially important
9Q: Describe the Cognitive Approach to explaining Abnormality Ellis (1962) and Beck (1963) : criticise the behaviourist explanation of abnormality because it focuses onstimulus -> response, but doesn’t take into account the mental processes in betweenMUSTCognitive Approach argues that it is the THINKING PROCESSES that occur between a stimulus and response that are responsible for the feelings that form part of the response.2 KEY FEATURES TO THE COGNITIVE APPROACH TO ABNORMALITY:IRRATIONAL THINKING / A-B-C MODEL (ELLIS, 1962)COGNITIVE TRIAD & ERRORS IN LOGIC (BECK, 1967)
10Distorted thoughts = emotional problems IRRATIONAL THINKING / a-b-c model(Ellis, 1962)Distorted thoughts = emotional problemsDistortions can be negative thoughts, irrational beliefs or illogical errorsABCAN EVENT (STIMULUS)BELIEFCONSEQUENCE (RESPONSE)Polarized thinking = seeing everything in black or whiteOver-generalisation =making sweeping generalisationsTyranny of ‘must’, ‘should’ and ‘ought’ = something MUST happenCatastrophizing = making a mountain out of a molehillSHOULDAbnormal behaviour occurs if people engage in faulty thinking to the extent that it becomes maladaptive for them and others around them
11TASK 1 : If you failed a mock exam (stimulus), this may lead to either maladaptive or adaptive behaviour (consequence/response). Cognitive theory would argue that the thoughts and feelings in between have an effect on the outcome.COMPLETE THE FIGURE IN TASK ONE OF THE HANDOUT: WHAT THOUGHTS, FEELINGS AND BEHAVIOURS COULD LEAD TO THE OUTCOMESCOULDMALADAPTIVE RESPONSETHOUGHTFEELINGSBEHAVIOUROUTCOMESTIMULUSTHOUGHTFEELINGSBEHAVIOUROUTCOMEADAPTIVE RESPONSE
12COGNITIVE TRIAD & ERRORS IN LOGIC (Beck, 1967)Negative thoughts underlie mental disorders, but why do people become depressed?There are 2 mechanisms…Errors in logic: depressed people draw illogical conclusions when they evaluate themselvesCognitive Triad: there are 3 forms of negative thinking that are typical of those with depressionNEGATIVE VIEWS ABOUT THE WORLD“everyone is against me because I’m worthless”SHOULDNEGATIVE VIEWS ABOUT THE FUTURENEGATIVE VIEWS ABOUT ONESELF“I’ll NEVER be good at anything”“I’m worthless and inadequate”
13Beck’s (1976) cognitive triad negative (irrational) thoughts that depressed individuals have about...Themselves: “I am helpless and inadequate”The world: “The world is full of insuperable obstacles”The future: “I am worthless, so there’s no chance that the future will be any better than the present”
14TASK 2 : Watch a case study of a depressed person and identify the features of the Cognitive Triad… The negative thoughts they express about themselvesThe negative thoughts they express about their experiencesThe negative thoughts they express about the futureCOULDYou COULD apply the Cognitive Triad by Beck to other cases of abnormality.