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Chapter 23 Section 1 Hoover and the Crash Objectives Read about America’s economic problems during the late 1920s. Understand how the Great Depression.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 23 Section 1 Hoover and the Crash Objectives Read about America’s economic problems during the late 1920s. Understand how the Great Depression."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 23 Section 1 Hoover and the Crash Objectives Read about America’s economic problems during the late 1920s. Understand how the Great Depression started. Find out how the Depression affected Americans. Explore President Hoover’s response to the Depression.

2 Chapter 23 Section 1 Hoover and the Crash Terms and People overproduction – situation in which the supply of manufactured goods exceeds the demand bankruptcy – financial failure caused by a company’s inability to pay its debts default – failure to repay a loan bonus – extra payment

3 Chapter 23 Section 1 Hoover and the Crash Why did the economy collapse after the stock market crash? The prosperity many Americans enjoyed came to a sudden halt in During the Great Depression, poverty and desperation became a way of life.

4 Chapter 23 Section 1 Hoover and the Crash Despite President Hoover’s optimistic outlook, the economy had weakened during the 1920s. Older industries such as mining, railroads, and clothing manufacturing had declined. So too, had agriculture. Yet stock prices continued to skyrocket.

5 Chapter 23 Section 1 Hoover and the Crash They lost their gamble in October 1929, when stock prices began a rapid slide. Brokers who had lent people money to buy stocks on margin called in the loans. Many people could not pay, so they sold their stocks. Many Americans had bought stocks on margin, gambling that prices would continue to soar. Stock prices dropped even more.

6 Chapter 23 Section 1 Hoover and the Crash On Black Tuesday, October 29, 1929, the stock market collapsed as prices hit rock bottom. Valuable stock certificates were now worthless pieces of paper. Many Americans lost everything.

7 Chapter 23 Section 1 Hoover and the Crash The stock market crash alone, however, was not the only symptom of the Depression. Great Depression Overproduction Banking crisis Business failures Unemployment Stock market crash

8 Chapter 23 Section 1 Hoover and the Crash Overproduction resulted in a huge supply of goods. Two key industries—housing and automobiles—were hit especially hard. Many people, however, had cut back on spending. Most people who could afford cars or houses had already bought them, so prices fell quickly.

9 Chapter 23 Section 1 Hoover and the Crash A banking crisis also contributed to the Depression. Many people were unable to repay their loans. Banks also lost money on the stock market. When they ran out of money, the banks went out of business.

10 Chapter 23 Section 1 Hoover and the Crash Terrified depositors ran to their banks, demanding their money. Many found that their money was gone.

11 Chapter 23 Section 1 Hoover and the Crash Business failures added to the deepening crisis. Many companies closed, forced into bankruptcy. With little money, consumers stopped spending. Business profits plunged.

12 Chapter 23 Section 1 Hoover and the Crash With factories and businesses closing, more workers lost their jobs. By 1933, some 13 million people were unemployed. Some resorted to selling apples and pencils on the street. Even those with jobs suffered from pay cuts.

13 Chapter 23 Section 1 Hoover and the Crash The Great Depression soon spread worldwide.

14 Chapter 23 Section 1 Hoover and the Crash As the Depression worsened, poverty swept across the country. People lined up for food at soup kitchens run by churches and other charities. Now, urban Americans struggled to feed their families. In earlier times, people could rely on their own farms to get by.

15 Chapter 23 Section 1 Hoover and the Crash The Depression was especially hard on families. Many had to leave home in search of work. Children often went hungry. They put off marriage. CouplesFathersChildren When they did marry, couples had fewer children. Ashamed, some deserted their families. Many could not attend school.

16 Chapter 23 Section 1 Hoover and the Crash The homeless built makeshift shelters on the outskirts of the cities. They called the shantytowns Hoovervilles.

17 Chapter 23 Section 1 Hoover and the Crash Hoover’s asked businesses and state and local governments to create work for the jobless. Gave money to local governments for public-works projects Funded critical businesses like banks, insurance companies, and railroads He also established the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.

18 Chapter 23 Section 1 Hoover and the Crash Government forces fired on the “Bonus Army.” The little support Hoover had left vanished. Support for Hoover diminished further in June Veterans marched to Washington. Struggling army veterans began to demand immediate payment of their bonuses. Hoover refused. Congress refused their plea.

19 Chapter 23 Section 1 Hoover and the Crash Section Review Know It, Show It QuizQuickTake Quiz


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