Presentation on theme: "1779. The British…are NOT coming! What were some of the complaints that led the colonists to declare independence and also war? What would the colonists."— Presentation transcript:
The British…are NOT coming! What were some of the complaints that led the colonists to declare independence and also war? What would the colonists fear as they began to set up a new government? What decisions would the colonists have to make about forming a new government out of 13 colonies, which until 1776, had basically been running themselves independently?
Objective: To examine the formation of the Articles of Confederation Objective: To examine the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
By 1780 – well before the end of the war – each colony has drawn up a plan for their state government and adopted a constitution After the end of the war, the US has NO central government! –The first attempt at a constitution for the United States was called the Articles of Confederation. In force from March 1, 1781, until March 4, 1789, when the present Constitution went into effect.
The Articles of Confederation (1781) Founding fathers fearful of establishing a government that was too powerful… –Result: super weak government that cannot unify the states
But depended on states to donate troops… NO $$$
United States of America Articles of Confederation
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? I. Currency Issues The United States did not have a common currency. Americans carried money from the federal government, state government, and foreign nations.
Merchants stopped accepting money from outside of their own state, causing a lot of money to become worthless. This caused an increase in inflation …what is inflation?
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? II. Debt Congress could not tax the people and depended on money from the states. Therefore, the U.S. was unable to pay its debts! Examples: - The U.S. owed money to France, Holland, and Spain for loans made during the Revolutionary War. - The U.S. had not paid many of their own soldiers!
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? III. International and Domestic Problems No military power to defend itself against Great Britain and Spain. States acted as individual countries and seldom agreed. Example: - Connecticut and Virginia almost went to war over land claims!
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? Courts (Judicial Branch) The nation lacked a national court system. Supreme Court
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? President (Executive Branch) The nation did not have a President, or Chief Executive. White House
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? Congress (Legislative Branch) Laws were difficult to pass, needing the approval of nine states…what ’ s the impact? Congress was responsible to the states, not the people. Congress had no power to collect taxes, regulate trade, coin money, or establish a military. Congress was unicameral…what does this mean? Capitol Building
Shay’s Rebellion 1.Which two groups were at odds with one another in Massachusetts before the rebellion occurred? 2.Why were farmers in a particularly difficult situation following the war? Give me 2 reasons. 3.What buildings did farmers throughout Massachusetts march on? 4.How did Shays’ Rebellion illustrate the weakness of the new government of the US?
Shay’s Rebellion 1.Which two groups were at odds with one another in Massachusetts before the rebellion occurred? –Merchants/government officials & farmers 2.Why were farmers in a particularly difficult situation following the war? Give me 2 reasons. –Returned home from war with no money; heavy taxation of property leads to economic despair 3.What buildings did farmers throughout Massachusetts march on? –Debtor’s courts 4.How did Shays’ Rebellion illustrate the weakness of the Articles of Confederation? –Inability to raise an army to put down internal unrest –Also shows the inability of the central government to raise tax dollars to fund the government (e.g. an army)
Shays’ Rebellion August 1786 – February 1787 Nearly 2,000 debtor farmers in western Massachusetts were threatened with foreclosure of their mortgaged property because the state raised property taxes Although the rebels were defeated by the state militia, they were victorious at the polls. Significance: The Articles of Confederation are NOT working!
I know I look like a character from the Broadway musical Cats (written and directed by Andrew Lloyd Webber), but I will mess your day up!
After the Articles of Confederation FAIL… How should power be distributed between states and the federal government for a successful democracy? Define federalism… –“ The division of governmental powers between the national and state governments."
5 Characteristics of Federalism 1.Legal authority divided between state and national government's 2.The states are subordinate to the national government in certain areas (define subordinate) 3.Enables positive cooperation between state and national governments 4.The U.S. Supreme Court serves as legal arbiter (define arbiter) 5.Dual citizenship exists under federalism - you ’ re a citizen of PA and the USA.
And it ’ s not even your birthday! What ’ s the difference between these two pieces of cake?
1. Dual Federalism “Layer" cake federalism –State & Nat’l government separate. –Nat’l government has a limited set of constitutional powers. –Tension rather than cooperation –1790s – 1930s Think about the fight that occurred before/during the Civil War
Federal or National Government…located where? State & Local Government…located where? DUAL FEDERALISM
2. Cooperative Federalism “Marble" cake federalism National, state, and local governments interact cooperatively to solve common problems, Make policies separately, but equally
Federal or National Government…located where? State & Local Government…located where? COOPERATIVE FEDERALISM
And Now What??? Count off by 5s Each group will receive an envelop; do not open it until I tell you! When I tell you…BEGIN! Describe the game you devised. How you feel as you played.?
The Significance? In May of 1787, outstanding citizens from 12 states gathered in Philadelphia. They planned to be there only a little while. They had come to improve the Articles of Confederation and try to create more unity and cooperation among the states. Rhode Island sent no representatives. How did those men feel that May? –Today, you used 12 paper clips. They represent the patriots who came from the 12 states. The die represents luck and each day that rolled around from May 25 to September 17.
The Constitutional Convention You will each assume the identity of one of the 55 delegates at the Constitutional Convention 1.In class you will read the document “A More Perfect Union” and answer the questions that follow. 2.You will also read your delegate’s biography and create a Name Plate for Wednesday