Presentation on theme: "World History Chapter 24 The West Between the Wars"— Presentation transcript:
1 World History Chapter 24 The West Between the Wars 1919 - 1939
2 Section 1: The Futile Search for Stability ObjectivesExplain why peace and prosperity were short-lived after World War IDescribe how a global economic depression weakened the Western democracies after 1929
6 A. A Weak League of Nations Not very effective in maintaining peaceProblem: Failure of the U.S. to join the leagueAutomatically weakened the organization’s effectiveness
7 B. French Demands Desire for security Reparations 1921, German makes its first paymentFinancial problems, unable to pay any moreFrance sends troops into the Ruhr Valley, Germany’s chief industrial and mining center
8 C. Inflation in Germany Germany prints more money This only added to the inflation (rise in prices)German mark soon became worthlessWorkers used wheelbarrows to carry home their weekly pay
9 C. Inflation in Germany1924, The Dawes Plan reduced German reparations & coordinated annual payments with its ability to pay$200 million dollar loan to open the door to heavy American investmentBrief period of prosperity ( )
10 D. The Treaty of Locarno1925, Treaty of Locarno guaranteed Germany’s new western borders with France & BelgiumNew Era of European Peace“France & Germany Ban War Forever”“Peace at Last”Germany joined the League of Nations
11 D. The Treaty of Locarno Treaty based on little real substance Promises were worthless without enforcementNations did not reduce their military
12 II. The Great Depression Economic collapse, known as the Great DepressionDepression, a period of low economic activity and rising unemployment
14 A. Causes of the Depression 1. Series of downturns in the economies of individual nations in the second half of the 1920’sEx. Prices for farm products, esp. wheat, were falling rapidly because of overproduction2. international financial crises involving the U.S. stock market
15 A. Causes of the Depression Oct. 1929, the U.S. stock market crashed, and the prices of stocks plungedIn a panic, U.S. investors withdrew even more money from Germany & other European marketsIndustrial production was declining & unemployment was rising
16 B. Responses to the Depression Britain 1 and 4 unemployed6 million Germany’s or 40% of labor force were out of workGovernments did not know how to deal with the crisisCut costs by lowering wages & raising tariffs to exclude foreign goods from home marketsThis made the economic crisis worse
17 During the Great Depression, many people had to resort to desperate measures
18 B. Responses to the Depression Increased government activity in the economyGoes against Laissez faire traditionRenewed interest in Marxist doctrinesCommunism became more popularLed masses to follow political leaders who offered simple solutions
19 III. Democratic States after the War Women were rewarded for their contributions to the war effort by granting them voting rightsReturn to normalcy was difficult
20 A. GermanyGermany is no longer an empire or ruled by William II, now known as the Weimar Republic.Many problems with the Republic including no strong political leaders and economic problems.The Great Depression also affects Germany.*Depression led to the fear and rise of extremist parties.
21 B. France Also affected by the depression, but not as bad until 1932. This led to political chaos, six different cabinets in 19 months.The Popular Front government is formed and they start the French New Deal.
22 B. FranceThe French New Deal gave workers the right to Collective bargaining, the right of unions to negotiate a 40-hour workweek, 2 week paid vacation, min. wage.Popular Front’s policies fail and there is little confidence in the political system.
23 C. Great BritainMany of the markets are lost to US and Japan leading to unemployment.John Maynard Keynes believed that the gov’t should interfere in solving the depression, unlike the old theory (Laissez faire)Wrote General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money.He believed in Deficit spending, a belief that the gov’t should spend money to get out of a depression even if it means going into debt by putting people to work.
24 D. The United StatesThe US is hit the hardest by the depression, more than 12 million were unemployed in 1933.President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) knew the capitalist system had to be reformed.His New Deal (or active gov’t intervention) increased public works that employed about 3 million people.Bridges, roads, post offices, and airports are built because of the New Deal and its programs like the WPA.
27 D. The United StatesSocial Security for the elderly and the unemployed.The New Deal prevents social chaos unlike the European nations, but does not fix the depression.In 1938, more than 10 million people are still unemployed.Not until War World II and the growth of weapons industry does the US get out of the Depression.
28 people standing in a line They are out of work and have no money to buy food.free food
29 Section 2: The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes ObjectivesCharacterize the modern totalitarian state established by MussoliniReport how Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union, eliminated people who threatened his power
31 I. The Rise of Dictators*Totalitarian state is a government that aims to control the political, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural lives of its citizens.Power of the Central StateWanted passive obedienceConquer the minds & hearts of their subjects
32 I. The Rise of Dictators Mass propaganda & modern communication Single leader & a single partyRejected limited government power & individual freedoms“collective will of the masses”Determined by the leaderActive involvement of the massess
33 II. Fascism in ItalyEarly 1920’s, *Benito Mussolini fascist ruler of Italy*Fascism, glories the state above the individual by emphasizing the need for a strong central government led by a dictatorial ruler.People are controlled by the government & any opposition is suppressed
35 A. Rise of Fascism Economic problems Inflation Industrial & agricultural workers strikeFear of Communism & SocialismBlack-shirts, armed Fascists attacked socialist offices & newspapersUsed violence to break up strikes
36 A. Rise of FascismIndustrialist & large landowners supported Mussolini’s Fascist movementHe demanded more land for ItalyMussolini threatened to march on Rome, if not given more powerKing makes Mussolini Prime MinisterCreated new laws, suspended publications, increased police powers
37 A. Rise of FascismBy 1926, the Fascists had outlawed all other political partiesMussolini now known as “Il Duce” (eel DOO*chay), “The Leader”
39 B. The Fascist StateCreated a secret police, OVRA to watch citizens, but not as savage as Hitler’sControl over most media to spread propagandaUsed simple slogans in the media“Mussolini is Always Right”Youth groups were used to promote ideals
40 B. The Fascist StateAlthough the Fascists tried to make Italian citizens disciplined, and war-loving, they still kept their traditional valuesEx. Women were the pillars of the state, but as homemakers and mothers.Mussolini never achieved the status that Hitler did with his Germany.Ex. Victor Emmanuel still kept his kingship.
41 III. A New Era in the Soviet Union Lenin followed a policy of war communismPeasants began to sabotage the communist programDrought caused a great famine between 1920 & 1922, 5 million lives were lostIndustrial output decreased to 1913 levels
42 A. Lenin’s New Economic Policy Lenin abandoned war communism in favor of his *New Economic Policy (NEP), a modified version of the old capitalist system.Peasants allowed to sell their produce, retail stores & small industries could be privately owned & operatedHeavy industry, banking & mines remained in the hands of the government
43 A. Lenin’s New Economic Policy 1922, a new Communist state called the *Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, USSR or Soviet Union was created.NEP saved the Soviet Union from complete economic disaster, but threatened the goals of the communism
44 B. The Rise of Stalin Lenin dies in 1924, a struggle for power began Leon Trotsky vs. Joseph Stalin*Politburo, a committee that had become the leading policy-making body of the Communist PartyStalin used his post as general secretary of the Politburo to gain complete control of the Communist Party
46 B. The Rise of StalinBy 1929, Stalin had eliminated from the Politburo the Bolsheviks of the revolutionary era and had established a dictatorship.Trotsky was expelled in 1927Murdered in 1940, probably on Stalin’s orders
47 C. Five-Year Plans1928, *Five-Year Plans, set of economic goals emphasized maximum production of capital goods (heavy machines) & armaments1928 to 1937 double & quadrupled productionLittle provision for caring of labor forceHousing declined, pitiful living conditions, real wages declined, movement limited
48 C. Five-Year Plans*Collectivization, private farmers were eliminated, government owned all of the land while the peasants worked it.Strong resistance to plan, peasants hoarded crops & killed livestockBy 1934, 26 million farms had been collectivized
50 D. Costs of Stalin’s Programs 10 million died in the famines of 1932 & 1933Those who resisted were sent into forced labor camps in SiberiaPurges or removals of the Old BolsheviksPut on trial and condemned to death
52 D. Costs of Stalin’s Programs Purged army officers, diplomats, union officials, party members, intellectuals, and numerous ordinary citizens8 million Russians were arrestedMillions sent to forced labor camps (Gulag) in Siberia, from which they never returnedOthers were executed
54 596They did not have as much power as higher officials.probably because records of the executions were not kept, and numbers could not be released while Stalin was alive
55 D. Costs of Stalin’s Programs Equal rights for womenDivorce process easierWomen encouraged to work outside the homeFamily values, hard work, duty, discipline to their childrenDivorced fathers who did not support their children were heavily fined
56 IV. Authoritarian States in the West Western world were not totalitarian but were authoritarianUse of police powersCreate a new kind of mass society, but to preserve the existing social order
57 A. Eastern Europe New states of Eastern Europe Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Romania, Bulgaria, and HungaryAll adopted parliamentary systems, but soon replaced by authoritarian regimes
59 A. Eastern EuropeWhy did the Parliamentary systems failed in E. Europe?Not used to it, a rural & agrarian society, illiteracy, ethnic problemsLandowners, the church, some middle class turned to authoritarian gov’ts to keep the old system.Czechoslovakia only one to maintain political democracy.
60 B. Spain*Francisco Franco, led a revolt against the democratic gov’t in 1936 and the Spanish Civil War began.Aided by Italy and German with arms, money, and men.Hitler helped Franco so he could test his air force.
62 B. SpainSpanish Republican party aided by the Soviet Union with trucks, volunteers, tanks, and military advisers.Civil War came to an end with Franco capturing the city of Madrid in 1939 and set up a dictatorship.Franco’s gov’t not a totalitarian, but an authoritarian because it still allowed traditional groups in people’s lives.