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© 2004 South-Western Publishing 1 Chapter 4 Option Combinations and Spreads.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2004 South-Western Publishing 1 Chapter 4 Option Combinations and Spreads."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2004 South-Western Publishing 1 Chapter 4 Option Combinations and Spreads

2 Summary Writing Covered Calls 2

3 Summary: 3

4 Summary Protective put 4

5 Summary 5

6 6

7 Put Overwriting: 7

8 8 Introduction Previous chapters focused on – Speculating – Income generation – Hedging Other strategies are available that seek a trading profit rather than being motivated by a hedging or income generation objective

9 9 Combinations Introduction Straddles Strangles Condors

10 10 Introduction A combination is a strategy in which you are simultaneously long or short options of different types

11 11 Straddles A straddle is the best-known option combination You are long a straddle if you own both a put and a call with the same – Striking price – Expiration date – Underlying security

12 12 Straddles (cont’d) You are short a straddle if you are short both a put and a call with the same – Striking price – Expiration date – Underlying security

13 13 Buying a Straddle A long call is bullish A long put is bearish Why buy a long straddle? – Whenever a situation exists when it is likely that a stock will move sharply one way or the other

14 14 Buying a Straddle (cont’d) Suppose a speculator – Buys a JAN 30 call on $1.20 – Buys a JAN 30 put on $2.75

15 15 Buying a Straddle (cont’d) Construct a profit and loss worksheet to form the long straddle: Stock Price at Option Expiration Long 30 $ Long 30 $ Net

16 16 Buying a Straddle (cont’d) Long straddle Stock price at option expiration Two breakeven points

17 17 Buying a Straddle (cont’d) The worst outcome for the straddle buyer is when both options expire worthless – Occurs when the stock price is at-the-money The straddle buyer will lose money if MSFT closes near the striking price – The stock must rise or fall to recover the cost of the initial position

18 18 Buying a Straddle (cont’d) If the stock rises, the put expires worthless, but the call is valuable If the stock falls, the put is valuable, but the call expires worthless

19 19 Writing a Straddle Popular with speculators The straddle writer wants little movement in the stock price Losses are potentially unlimited on the upside because the short call is uncovered

20 20 Writing a Straddle (cont’d) Short straddle Stock price at option expiration

21 21 Strangles A strangle is similar to a straddle, except the puts and calls have different striking prices Strangles are very popular with professional option traders

22 22 Buying a Strangle The speculator long a strangle expects a sharp price movement either up or down in the underlying security With a long strangle, the most popular version involves buying a put with a lower striking price than the call

23 23 Buying a Strangle (cont’d) Suppose a speculator: – Buys a MSFT JAN 25 $0.70 – Buys a MSFT JAN 30 $1.20

24 24 Buying a Strangle (cont’d) Long strangle Stock price at option expiration

25 25 Writing a Strangle The maximum gains for the strangle writer occurs if both option expire worthless – Occurs in the price range between the two exercise prices

26 26 Writing a Strangle (cont’d) Short strangle Stock price at option expiration

27 27 Condors A condor is a less risky version of the strangle, with four different striking prices

28 28 Buying a Condor There are various ways to construct a long condor The condor buyer hopes that stock prices remain in the range between the middle two striking prices

29 29 Buying a Condor (cont’d) Suppose a speculator: – Buys MSFT 25 $4.20 – Writes MSFT $2.40 – Writes MSFT 30 $2.75 – Buys MSFT $4.60

30 30 Buying a Condor (cont’d) Construct a profit and loss worksheet to form the long condor: Stock Price at Option Expiration Buy 25 $ Write $ Write 30 $ Buy $ Net

31 31 Buying a Condor (cont’d) Long condor Stock price at option expiration

32 32 Writing a Condor The condor writer makes money when prices move sharply in either direction The maximum gain is limited to the premium

33 33 Writing a Condor (cont’d) Short condor Stock price at option expiration

34 34 Spreads Introduction Vertical spreads Vertical spreads with calls Vertical spreads with puts Calendar spreads Diagonal spreads Butterfly spreads

35 35 Introduction Option spreads are strategies in which the player is simultaneously long and short options of the same type, but with different – Striking prices or – Expiration dates

36 36 Vertical Spreads In a vertical spread, options are selected vertically from the financial pages – The options have the same expiration date – The spreader will long one option and short the other Vertical spreads with calls – Bullspread – Bearspread

37 37 Bullspread Assume a person believes MSFT stock will appreciate soon A possible strategy is to construct a vertical call bullspread and: – Buy an APR MSFT call – Write an APR MSFT call The spreader trades part of the profit potential for a reduced cost of the position.

38 38 Bullspread (cont’d) With all spreads the maximum gain and loss occur at the striking prices – It is not necessary to consider prices outside this range – With a 27.50/32.50 spread, you only need to look at the stock prices from $27.50 to $32.50

39 39 Bullspread (cont’d) Construct a profit and loss worksheet to form the bullspread: Stock Price at Option Expiration Long $ Short $ Net-2 133

40 40 Bullspread (cont’d) Bullspread Stock price at option expiration

41 41 Bearspread A bearspread is the reverse of a bullspread – The maximum profit occurs with falling prices – The investor buys the option with the lower striking price and writes the option with the higher striking price

42 42 Vertical Spreads With Puts: Bullspread Involves using puts instead of calls Buy the option with the lower striking price and write the option with the higher one

43 43 Bullspread (cont’d) The put spread results in a credit to the spreader’s account (credit spread) The call spread results in a debit to the spreader’s account (debit spread)

44 44 Bullspread (cont’d) A general characteristic of the call and put bullspreads is that the profit and loss payoffs for the two spreads are approximately the same – The maximum profit occurs at all stock prices above the higher striking price – The maximum loss occurs at stock prices below the lower striking price

45 45 Calendar Spreads In a calendar spread, options are chosen horizontally from a given row in the financial pages – They have the same striking price – The spreader will long one option and short the other

46 46 Calendar Spreads (cont’d) Calendar spreads are either bullspreads or bearspreads – In a bullspread, the spreader will buy a call with a distant expiration and write a call that is near expiration – In a bearspread, the spreader will buy a call that is near expiration and write a call with a distant expiration

47 47 Calendar Spreads (cont’d) Calendar spreaders are concerned with time decay – Options are worth more the longer they have until expiration

48 48 Diagonal Spreads A diagonal spread involves options from different expiration months and with different striking prices – They are chosen diagonally from the option listing in the financial pages Diagonal spreads can be bullish or bearish

49 49 Butterfly Spreads A butterfly spread can be constructed for very little cost beyond commissions A butterfly spread can be constructed using puts and calls

50 50 Butterfly Spreads(cont’d) Example of a butterfly spread Stock price at option expiration 0

51 51 Nonstandard Spreads: Ratio Spreads A ratio spread is a variation on bullspreads and bearspreads – Instead of “long one, short one,” ratio spreads involve an unequal number of long and short options – E.g., a call bullspread is a call ratio spread if it involves writing more than one call at a higher striking price

52 52 Nonstandard Spreads: Hedge Wrapper A hedge wrapper involves writing a covered call and buying a put – Useful if a stock you own has appreciated and is expected to appreciate further with a temporary decline – An alternative to selling the stock or creating a protective put The maximum profit occurs once the stock price rises to the striking price of the call The lowest return occurs if the stock falls to the striking price of the put or below

53 53 Hedge Wrapper (cont’d) The profitable stock position is transformed into a certain winner The potential for further gain is reduced

54 54 Hedge Wraper

55 55 Margin Considerations Introduction Margin requirements on long puts or calls Margin requirements on short puts or calls Margin requirements on spreads Margin requirements on covered calls

56 56 Margin Considerations: Introduction Necessity to post margin is an important consideration in spreading – The speculator in short options must have sufficient equity in his or her brokerage account before the option positions can be assumed

57 57 Margin Requirements on Long Puts or Calls There is no requirement to advance any sum of money - other than the option premium and the commission required - to long calls or puts Can borrow up to 25% of the cost of the option position from a brokerage firm if the option has at least nine months until expiration

58 58 Margin Requirements on Short Puts or Calls For uncovered calls on common stock, the initial margin requirement is the greater of Premium (Stock Price) – (Out-of-Money Amount) or Premium (Stock Price)

59 59 Margin Requirements on Short Puts or Calls (cont’d) For uncovered puts on common stock, the initial margin requirement is 10% of the exercise price

60 60 Margin Requirements on Spreads All spreads must be done in a margin account More lenient than those for uncovered options You must pay for the long side in full

61 61 Margin Requirements on Spreads (cont’d) You must deposit the amount by which the long put (or short call) exercise price is below the short put (or long call) exercise price A general spread margin rule: – For a debit spread, deposit the net cost of the spread – For a credit spread, deposit the different between the option striking prices

62 62 Margin Requirements on Covered Calls There is no margin requirement when writing covered calls Brokerage firms may restrict clients’ ability to sell shares of the underlying stock

63 63 Evaluating Spreads: Introduction Spreads and combinations are – Bullish, – Bearish, or – Neutral You must decide on your outlook for the market before deciding on a strategy

64 64 Evaluating Spreads: The Debit/Credit Issue An outlay requires a debit An inflow generates a credit There are several strategies that may serve a particular end, and some will involve a debt and others a credit

65 65 Evaluating Spreads: The Reward/Risk Ratio Examine the maximum gain relative to the maximum loss E.g., if a call bullspread has a maximum gain of $ and a maximum loss of $200.00, the reward/risk ratio is 1.50

66 66 Evaluating Spreads: The “Movement to Loss” Issue The magnitude of stock price movement necessary for a position to become unprofitable can be used to evaluate spreads

67 67 Evaluating Spreads: Specify A Limit Price In spreads: – You want to obtain a high price for the options you sell – You want to pay a low price for the options you buy Specify a dollar amount for the debit or credit at which you are willing to trade

68 68 Determining the Appropriate Strategy: Some Final Thoughts The basic steps involved in any decision making process: – Learn the fundamentals – Gather information – Evaluate alternatives – Make a decision


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