The object of definition PPPP approach (Mooney) Product Person Process Press PPPE environment
Creative product If something is creative, it is both: new valuable (or at least appropriate) Noncreative products are: New but worthless Valuable but lacking novelty Worthless and lacking novelty
Values and domains of creativity ValuesGoalDomain cognitivetruthscience estheticbeautyart pragmaticusefulnesstechnology ethicalgoodnesspolitics
Morris I. Stein’s definition Creativity is a process leading to a new product that is acceptable as useful or tenable for a group of persons during some period of time Relativism social cultural historic Pieces of work become creative and may lose this attribute
Creativity as an attribute of the person Elitist approach uppercase CREATIVITY Genius, eminence, high achievement Egalitarian approach lowercase creativity just a trait (everybody has it)
Potential creativity Creativity without masterpieces Symptoms: Curiosity, explorative behavior, putting questions Remote associations Rejection of superficial explanations Visual thinking The use of analogy and metaphor.......
Levels of creativity „Fluid” creativity Idea generation „Crystallized” creativity Solution of a problem, attainment of a goal Mature creativity Solution of an important problem Eminent creativity Fundamental (paradigmatic) change
The dimension of time p sec min hour week month year 10 y 20 y t
Factors influencing the temporal factor Inwestment (Sternberg & Lubart) Expert knowledge acquisition Leadership ability (Simonton) Maturation of recipients
Criteria of creativity Explicit well-defined operationalized Implicit intuitional not verbalized
Explicit criteria Criteria of high achievement Simonton’s approach: how to measure originality of a composer? J. P. Guilford’s approach fluency flexibility originality (elaboration)
Guilford’s tests Unusual Uses How can we use: a brick a broom........ Consequences What would happen if: people had three legs we had to pay checks for laughing........
Implicit criteria Consensual assessment Teresa Amabile: a product or behavior is creative if appropriately chosen observers agree for that Emotional criteria Jerome Bruner: creative piece of work leads us to „effective surprise”
Cognitive science perspective Creativity as a process Peculiarities of creative cognition perception thinking memory Categorization Knowledge structures..... No need for individual assessment
The Geneplore model Finke, Ward & Smith(1992) Creative cognition approach Geneplore = generation + exploration The notion of „preinventive structure”
General scheme generation of preinventive structures expansion & interpretation Constraints
Generative processes Generate preinventive structures Six groups memory retrieval association synthesis („mental blends”) new concepts transfer of knowledge category reduction (e.g., rose as a flavor generator)
Interpretation Logo of golfing club wine lovers club pregnancy treatment center ???
The creative interaction approach Goal Tentative structure Mutual and continual influence Strategies Obstacles
Creative strategies (examples) The germ strategy Start with any idea, then work on it The guiding emotion strategy „warm feeling of being right” (Gordon) cold feeling of being wrong The vicarious problem strategy Think about something similar and „borrow” ideas
Obstacles Cognitive mental set frame of reference Emotional anxiety low tolerance for ambiguity Social external pressures shame