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The concept of creativity

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1 The concept of creativity
Monday The concept of creativity

2 The object of definition
PPPP approach (Mooney) Product Person Process Press PPPE  environment

3 Creative product If something is creative, it is both:
new valuable (or at least appropriate) Noncreative products are: New but worthless Valuable but lacking novelty Worthless and lacking novelty

4 Values and domains of creativity
Values Goal Domain cognitive truth science esthetic beauty art pragmatic usefulness technology ethical goodness politics

5 Morris I. Stein’s definition
Creativity is a process leading to a new product that is acceptable as useful or tenable for a group of persons during some period of time Relativism social cultural historic Pieces of work become creative and may lose this attribute

6 Creativity as an attribute of the person
Elitist approach uppercase CREATIVITY Genius, eminence, high achievement Egalitarian approach lowercase creativity just a trait (everybody has it)

7 Distribution of creativity as a trait

8 Potential creativity Creativity without masterpieces Symptoms:
Curiosity, explorative behavior, putting questions Remote associations Rejection of superficial explanations Visual thinking The use of analogy and metaphor

9 Levels of creativity „Fluid” creativity „Crystallized” creativity
Idea generation „Crystallized” creativity Solution of a problem, attainment of a goal Mature creativity Solution of an important problem Eminent creativity Fundamental (paradigmatic) change

10 The dimension of time p sec min hour week month year 10 y 20 y t

11 Factors influencing the temporal factor
Inwestment (Sternberg & Lubart) Expert knowledge acquisition Leadership ability (Simonton) Maturation of recipients

12 Criteria of creativity
Explicit well-defined operationalized Implicit intuitional not verbalized

13 Explicit criteria Criteria of high achievement
Simonton’s approach: how to measure originality of a composer? J. P. Guilford’s approach fluency flexibility originality (elaboration)

14 Guilford’s tests Unusual Uses Consequences How can we use: a brick
a broom Consequences What would happen if: people had three legs we had to pay checks for laughing

15 Implicit criteria Consensual assessment Emotional criteria
Teresa Amabile: a product or behavior is creative if appropriately chosen observers agree for that Emotional criteria Jerome Bruner: creative piece of work leads us to „effective surprise”

16 Cognitive science perspective
Creativity as a process Peculiarities of creative cognition perception thinking memory Categorization Knowledge structures ..... No need for individual assessment

17 The Geneplore model Finke, Ward & Smith(1992)
Creative cognition approach Geneplore = generation + exploration The notion of „preinventive structure”

18 General scheme expansion generation & of preinventive interpretation
structures expansion & interpretation Constraints

19 Generative processes Generate preinventive structures Six groups
memory retrieval association synthesis („mental blends”) new concepts transfer of knowledge category reduction (e.g., rose as a flavor generator)

20 Example: what can we do with these elements?

21 Constraints Marketing & advertisement domain Metaphorical meaning
Synthesis of elements

22 Product

23 Interpretation Logo of golfing club wine lovers club
pregnancy treatment center ???

24 The creative interaction approach
Goal Tentative structure Mutual and continual influence Strategies Obstacles

25 Creative strategies (examples)
The germ strategy Start with any idea, then work on it The guiding emotion strategy „warm feeling of being right” (Gordon) cold feeling of being wrong The vicarious problem strategy Think about something similar and „borrow” ideas

26 Obstacles Cognitive Emotional Social mental set frame of reference
anxiety low tolerance for ambiguity Social external pressures shame

27 Four dots problem

28 Bad solutions

29 Good solution

30 Creative solution

31 Conclusions Creative cognition is just cognition
Peculiarities refer to the way a process is executed and controlled The level of creativity decides on the organization of the creative process

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