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GHQ-12 1.Able to concentrate 2.Lost much sleep 3.Playing a useful part 4.Capable of making decisions 5.Under stress 6.Could not overcome difficulties 7.Enjoy normal activities 8.Can face up to problems 9.Feeling unhappy and depressed 10.Losing confidence 11.Thinking of self as worthless 12.Feeling reasonably happy INSTRUCTIONS We should like to know if you have any medical complaints, and how your health has been in general, over the past few weeks….. We want to know about present and recent complaints, not those you had in the past.

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12 item GHQ (6 positive items) Item 1 –able to concentrate Better than usualBTU Same as usualSAU Less than usualLTU Much less than usualMTLU Item 3 –playing a useful part More so than usualMSTU Same as usualSAU Less useful than usualLUTU Much less than usualMTLU Item 4 –felt capable of making decisions More so than usualMSTU Same as usualSAU Less so than usualLSTU Much less capableMLC Item 7 –able to enjoy day-to-day activities More so than usualMSTU Same as usualSAU Less so than usualLSTU Much less than usualMTLU Item 8 –able to face up to your problems More so than usualMSTU Same as usualSAU Less able than usualLATU Much less than usualMTLU Item 12 –feeling reasonably happy all things considered More so than usualMSTU Same as usualSAU Less so than usualLSTU Much less than usualMTLU

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12 item GHQ (6 negative items) Item 2 –lost much sleep over worry Not at allNAA No more than usualNMTU Rather more than usualRMTU Much more than usualMMTU Item 5 –playing a usefu part Not at allNAA No more than usualNMTU Rather more than usualRMTU Much more than usualMMTU Item 6 –felt capable of making decisions Not at allNAA No more than usualNMTU Rather more than usualRMTU Much more than usualMMTU Item 9 –feeling unhappy and depressed Not at allNAA No more than usualNMTU Rather more than usualRMTU Much more than usualMMTU Item 10 –been losing confidence in yourself Not at allNAA No more than usualNMTU Rather more than usualRMTU Much more than usualMMTU Item 11 –thinking of self as worthless person Not at allNAA No more than usualNMTU Rather more than usualRMTU Much more than usualMMTU

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ILLEGAL & WRONG !!!

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Goldberg’s GHQ-12: BHPS VARIABLE & RESPONSE LABELS ighqa : ghq: concentration 1: better than usual 2: same as usual 3: less than usual 4: much less thn usual ighqb : ghq: loss of sleep 1: not at all 2: no more than usual 3: rather more thn usul 4: much more than usual ighqc : ghq: playing a useful role 1: more than usual 2: same as usual 3: less so 4: much less ighqd : ghq: capable of making decisions 1: more than usual 2: same as usual 3: less so 4: much less ighqe : ghq: constantly under strain 1: not at all 2: no more than usual 3: rather more 4: much more ighqf : ghq: problem overcoming difficulties 1: not at all 2: no more than usual 3: rather more 4: much more ighqg : ghq: enjoy day-to-day activities 1: more than usual 2: same as usual 3: less so 4: much less ighqh : ghq: ability to face problems 1: more than usual 2: same as usual 3: less so 4: much less ighqi : ghq: unhappy or depressed 1: not at all 2: no more thn usual 3: rather more 4: much more ighqj : ghq: losing confidence 1: not at all 2: no more than usual 3: rather more 4: much more ighqk : ghq: believe in self-worth 1: not at all 2: no more than usual 3: rather more 4: much more ighql : ghq: general happiness 1: more than usual 2: same as usual 3: less so 4: much less

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Latent Goldberg: What kinds of models are required to ask what research questions? 1.Latent variable model (IRT/LTA or CDFA) 2.Discrimination & Difficulty params ICCs 3.Information function (effective measurement) 4.Scoring methods for -ve items (cGHQ) 1.Model-based vs simple sum score (linear models, interval (metric) scores) 2.Person (cluster) vs variable centered analyses 3.IRT models with ordinal or nominal indicators Duncan-Jones et al (1986), Psych Med Goldberg et al (1987) Psych Med Whittington & Huppert (2003) SSM Ploubidis et al (2007) P&ID Focus on negative items Normal ogive item response models WLS Logistic distribution item response models ML Focus on GHQ positive items Equal interval scoring as Interval? Coding “more than usual” ve items Q … the characteristics and performance of GHQ items as measures of distress, and the estimated or assumed dist’n of the latent trait Q … the potential for some items to be scored to capture a notion of positive mental health. Does the GHQ “do” well-being? Psychiatry Psychology Standard statistical approach - under applied Novel scoring approaches, under-validated

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Positively worded items scored 1000 F1 GHQ Pos F2 GHQ Neg GHQ03GHQ07GHQ12GHQ01GHQ04GHQ08 GHQ05GHQ09GHQ11GHQ02GHQ06GHQ10 Orthogonal Negatively items scored 0011

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Setting the scene Software use: what do you use? –SPSS –SASSTATA –R/SplusMATLAB –Specialist: Psychometric BILOG MULTILOG TESTFACT PARSCALE Rasch software

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Psychometric papers What statistics/statistical analyses do you associate with a “psychometric” paper –What would you use a computer to calculate for you? Why are you doing that? Why only that? What else could you do and how? Increasing your options and understanding of the range of psychometric scaling approaches and statistic analyses Psychometric analyses, and increasing the accuracy with which you describe, execute and combine them

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Example: GHQ General Health Questionnaire See GHQ Users Guide and Goodchild-Duncan Jones (Ref pdf) This instrument has no numbers on it Scoring begins from assignment of 1, 2, 3, 4 (weights) i.e. consecutive integers to the ordered levels of the graded responses [Scoring methods alter weights/Scaling models estimate weights] Be careful with question wording GHQ is balanced in terms of + & - question wording [what does this mean?] Why – and what implication(s)? NB: If response options are consistently (re)-worded, this avoids the need for reverse scoring]

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GHQ-30 data from a population survey: HALS (Baseline)

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GHQ-30 data from a population survey: HALS (9 items)

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New portable C:\HALS_CGHQ_negativeonly.dta

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Time to share out well tested Data preparation pipeline (semi-automated) Take it away Jon

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