Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 15 Stock Options Chapter Sections: Options on Common Stocks"— Presentation transcript:
1CHAPTER 15 Stock Options Chapter Sections: Options on Common Stocks At a very exclusive party, a high-class, finely-clad woman slinked up to the CEO of a Fortune 500 company and said, “I will do anything – anything you want.”The CEO flatly responded,“Re-price my options.”Chapter Sections:Options on Common StocksThe Options Clearing CorporationWhy Options?Stock Index OptionsOption Intrinsic Values and “Moneyness”Option Payoffs and ProfitsUsing Options to Manage RiskOption Trading StrategiesArbitrage and Option Pricing BoundsPut-Call Parity
2What is an Option Contract? A security that gives the holder the right to buy or sell a certain amount of an underlying financial asset at a specified price for a specified period of timeFinancial asset examples: Stocks, bonds, etc.Options contracts are not investmentsThey are contracts between two investorsBuyer of the option contract gets the right to buy (or sell) the financial asset at a given price for a given period of timeSeller of the option contract must buy (or sell) the asset according to the terms of the contract
3What is an Option Contract? (continued)Options contracts are part of a class of securities called derivativesDerivatives are securities that derive their value from the price behavior of an underlying real or financial assetOptions contracts have no voting rights, receive no dividends nor interest, and eventually expireTheir value comes from the fact that they allow the holder of the option to participate in the price behavior of the underlying assetWith a much lower capital outlayBy the way, options contracts are usually just referred to as options.
4What is an Option Contract? (continued)Options allow an investor to leverage their outlay of capitalLeverage – the ability to obtain a given equity position at a reduced capital investment, thereby magnifying returns (review)With options, you can make the same amount of money from a stock or other security as if you bought it for full priceBut only come up 1/10th or less of the moneySounds too good to be true, huh? Well, you are right. It is too good to be true. Much of the time, you lose the entire outlay. Options have a time limit. Most options expire worthless.
5What is the Rational for Options? Instead of buying a stock, buy an option to buy a stock (or an option to sell a stock)If the stock goes up, your option will go up (almost always much, much faster) and you can sell the option for a handsome profitThere is only one catch – The option expires in three, six or nine monthsIf the stock does not go up, the option is worthlessMost options expire worthless (Surprise!)There are some scenarios where options can be worthwhile but they are few and far between!
6Option Contracts Example Stock currently selling for $20You buy a share of the stock for $20If it goes up to $30, you have earned $10 on a $20 investmentYou buy an option to purchase a share of the stock at $20 currently selling at $20It might only cost you $1 for the optionIf the stock goes up to $30, your option price will probably go up to around $11You have earned $10 on a $1 investmentThat is “leverage” in actionCongratulations! Pat yourself on the back!
7Option Contracts Example (continued)But what if the stock price stays at $20Your option expires worthless at the end of three, six, or nine monthsAnd, of course, after your option expires, the stock price zooms to $40You were so sure that this stock was going to hit the big time and you were absolutely rightBut because you bought an option that expired, you lost the ability to share in the success of the stockMy advice? Forget about the option and just buy the stock! But since this is an Intro to Investments class, we need to become proficient in the concepts, terms, and techniques of options. So…
8Two Main Types of Options Call Option Contract – a.k.a. “Call”A negotiable instrument that gives the buyer of the option the right to buy the underlying security at a stated price within a certain period of time(The previous example was a “call” option)When people talk about options, they are usually talking about call optionsPut Option Contract – a.k.a. “Put”A negotiable instrument that gives the buyer of the option the right to sell the underlying security at a stated price within a certain period of timeOpposite of a call option
9Two Main Types of Options (continued)“Where did the terms ‘call’ and ‘put’ come from and how will I remember which is which?”The term “call” comes from the idea that when you buy a call option, you get the right to “call the stock away” from the seller of the optionThe term “put” comes from the idea that when you buy a put option, you get the right to “put the stock to” the seller of the optionGet the idea? A “call” allows you to “call away the stock” from someone (buy it from them).A “put” allows you to “put the stock” to someone (sell it to them).Let us look at each in detail.
10The Two Parties of a Call Option Buyer of the call option contractThe Call Option Buyer of the contract is the person who will do the “calling away”They buy the right to “call the stock away from” (buy it from) the call sellerThey do not have to exercise the rightIn fact, often the options contract expires worthlessSeller of the call option contracta.k.a. Option writer, Option makerThe Call Option Seller of the contract is the person who must sell the stock (“called away from”)The call option seller is legally bound to sell the stock to the call buyerIn return, they get the option price from the call option buyer
11The Two Parties of a Call Option (continued)“What is the Call Option Buyer Hoping For?”The call option buyer is hoping that the price of the stock will go up – a call option buyer is bullishIf an option buyer has a call option to buy at $20 and the price goes to $30, the buyer can buy a $30 stock for only $20“What is the Call Option Seller Hoping For?”The call option seller is hoping that the price of the stock will go down or stay the same – a call option seller is bearish (or at least not very bullish)If the stock stays around $20 or goes down, the call option buyer will not want to exercise the option and it will expire worthlessAnd the call option seller gets to keep the price of the option
12Call Option Example Ed Ted $20 Pays $1 Gets $1 Call option buyer call pricePays $1Gets $1Call option buyerCall Option ContractCall option sellerThe call option buyer wants the price of the underlying stock to go up.He is bullish.No matter what happens to the price of the stock, he can buy it from (“call it away from”) the call option seller for $20.The call option contract is tied to the underlying stock. It will vary up & down as the stock varies.The call option seller wants the price of the underlying stock to go down.He is bearish.No matter what happens to the price of the stock, he must sell it to (“called away from”) the call option buyer for $20 if exercised.
13The Two Parties of a Put Option Buyer of the put options contractThe Put Option Buyer of the contract is the person who will do the “putting to”They buy the right to “put the stock to” (sell it to) the put option sellerAgain, they do not have to exercise this rightRecall: Often the options contract expires worthlessSeller of the put options contracta.k.a. Option writer, Option makerThe Put Option Seller of the contract is the person who must buy the stock (“put to”)The put option seller is legally bound to buy the stock from the put option buyerIn return, they get the option price from the put option buyer
14The Two Parties of a Put Option (continued)“What is the Put Option Buyer Hoping For?”The put option buyer is hoping that the price of the stock will go down – a put option buyer is bearishIf an option buyer has a put option to sell at $20 and the price goes to $10, the buyer can sell the $10 stock (“put it to the option seller”) for $20“What is the Put Option Seller Hoping For?”The put option seller is hoping that the price of the stock will go up or stay the same – a put option seller is bullish (or at least not very bearish)If the stock stays around $20 or goes up, the put option buyer will not want to exercise the option and it will expire worthlessAnd the put option seller gets to keep the price of the option
15Put Option Example Fred Ned $20 Pays $1 Gets $1 Put option buyer put pricePays $1Gets $1Put option buyerPut Option ContractPut option sellerThe put option buyer wants the price of the underlying stock to go down.He is bearish.No matter what happens to the price of the stock, he can sell it to (“put it to”) the put option seller for $20.The put option contract is tied to the underlying stock. It will vary up & down as the stock varies.The put option seller wants the price of the underlying stock to go up.He is bullish.No matter what happens to the price of the stock, he must buy it from (“put to”) the put option buyer for $20 if the option is exercised.
16Time for Questions on Options “Options are confusing, aren’t they?”In fact, the section on options is one of the hardest parts of the Series 7 Stockbroker exam“Options sound like gambling. I am right?”Yes. Options are a form of gambling. It is a zero-sum game. Someone wins, someone loses.A family acquaintance once called me. “Hey, Frank. I hear you can make a lot of money investing in options!”I said, “Wait a minute. Yes, you can make a lot of money; you can also lose a lot of money. But you can’t invest in options. You can speculate in options. You can not invest in something that has a 60% chance of being worthless in three months! That is not investing.”
17Option Attributes Strike Price – a.k.a. Exercise Price The contract price between the buyer of an option and the seller of the optionThe stated price at which you can buy a security with a call option or sell a security with a put optionListed options traditionally sold in…$2.50 increments for stocks selling for less than $25$5.00 increments for stocks selling between $25 & $200$10.00 increments for stocks selling for greater than $200But pricing is more flexible nowThere are some stock options that sell in $1 increments
18Option Attributes Expiration Date The date at which an option expires (continued)Expiration DateThe date at which an option expiresListed options always expire at the close of the market on the third Friday of the month of the option’s expirationThe hour before close of the market on the third Friday is sometimes called the “witching hour”As well as stock options, there are also stock index options and stock index futures which we will discuss later. When all three – stock options, stock index options, and stock futures – expire on the same day, then it is called the “triple-witching hour.”
19Option Attributes Exercise Style American options European options (continued)Exercise StyleAmerican optionsCan be exercised at any time before the expirationEuropean optionsCan only be exercised at expirationNormally, if you wanted to take a profit from an option that had done well and there was still significant time until the expiration date, you would simply resell the option instead of actually exercising the option. However, with an American-style option, if you really wanted the stock, you could exercise the option and buy (or sell) the stock before the expiration date. By the way, there are several other types of options with various provisions.
20Quotations of Listed Options Go online toSearch for the stock and choose [Options] from the stock menu just above the quote dataYou can still try finance.yahoo.comWhen you are viewing the quote of a stock, choose the Options link on the left hand side of the screenBut lately, the quotes for options have been very unreliableYahoo! seems to be intent on destroying what is left of their once-fabulous Finance page. Oh, well …The list of available options contracts and their prices for a particular security is called an option chain.
21Options Contracts Buying & Selling (writing, making) Options Contracts We have discussed options contracts as if they were traded just as stocks are tradedIn most ways, they are very similarBut there is one major differenceOptions are sold as “contracts”Each contract represents one hundred shares of underlying securityThere are no odd-lots on the options exchangesSo if the listed price of the option is $5, then one contract will cost $500 ($5 * 100 shares). Two contracts will cost $1,000, etc.
22Options Contracts Option Premium (continued)Option PremiumThe quoted price the option buyer pays to buy a listed put or call optionThe seller (a.k.a. writer, maker) receives the premium immediately and gets to keep it whether or not the option is ever exercised(Did I mention that most options expire without being exercised? That most options expire worthless?)To make it more confusing, the term premium is also used in a more precise manner when valuing options. For this reason, most people always refer to the price of the option instead of the premium of the option.
23Valuations of Options “In-the-money” Call Option A call option with a strike price less than the market price of the underlying securityExample: Call Strike Price $50Market Price $54$4 “In-the-money”“Out-of-the-money” Call OptionA call option with no real value because the strike price exceeds the market price of the stockMarket Price $47$4 “Out-of-the-money”
24Valuations of Options “In-the-money” Put Option (continued)“In-the-money” Put OptionA put option with a strike price greater than the market price of the underlying securityExample: Put Strike Price $50Market Price $46$4 “In-the-money”“Out-of-the-money” Put OptionA put option with no real value because the market price exceeds the strike price of the stockMarket Price $52$2 “Out-of-the-money”
25Valuations of Options: Example Call OptionCall Option Example (Strike price $50, Option price $10)Theoretically, for every $1 above the strike price, the call buyer earns a dollar and the call seller (a.k.a. call writer) loses a $1.
26Valuations of Options: Example Call Option(continued)Call Option Example (Strike price $50, Option price $10)But the previous graph ignored the price of the option. The call buyer had to pay $10 and the call seller received $10.
27Valuations of Options: Example Put Option(continued)Put Option Example (Strike price $50, Option price $10)Again, theoretically, for every $1 below the strike price, the put buyer earns a dollar and the put seller (a.k.a. put writer) loses a $1.
28Valuations of Options: Example Put Option(continued)Put Option Example (Strike price $50, Option price $10)But again, the previous graph ignored the fact the put buyer had to pay $10 for the option and the put seller (a.k.a. put writer) earned $10.
29Valuations of Options Time Premium (continued)Time PremiumThe amount by which the option price exceeds the option’s “in-the-money” valueIn general, the longer the time to expiration, the greater the size of the time premiumIf an option is “out-of-the-money,” then the entire price of the option is due to the time premiumIn other words, an option that is “in-the-money” will sell for more than the amount it is “in-the-money” because of the time remaining until the expiration date. Often, an option that is “out- of-the-money” will still have time value. The option still has time to become worth more (as the underlying stock price changes).
30Commissions on Option Contracts And Do Not Forget Commissions!In the previous examples, we did not include the cost of the commissionsA commission is charged whenever an option is bought or soldBoth buyer and seller pay a commissionAnd a commission is charged when and if the buyer exercises the option and buys or sells the stockAgain, both buyer and seller pay a commissionWhen you include the commissions, it makes it that much harder to make money in optionsBut if you are a broker, you would simply love to have your clients get hooked on options. P.S. None of my clients trade options. I would do my best to talk them out of it if they asked to!
31Option Strategies Speculating – You will often hear… “If you feel the market price of a particular stock is going to move up…”“If you anticipate a drop in price within the next six months…”“It is a highly risky investment strategy, but it may be suited for the more speculatively inclined.”The flaw in these arguments is this: There has never been a successful method to predict stock prices in the short term. You may “feel” or “anticipate” that the price will go up or down, but that does not mean that it will. It is not investing, it is gambling. Plus, you may be correct but your option may expire before you are proven correct.
32Option Strategies Hedging (continued)HedgingA transaction or series of transactions made to reduce the risk of adverse price movements in an assetHedging can be thought of as insuranceAnd although insurance can be useful in some circumstances, it is not freeYou pay for the insurance via the price of the option and the commissionsInvestors can use hedging strategies when they are unsure of what the market will do. A perfect hedge reduces your risk to nothing (except for the cost of the option and the commissions).
33Option Strategies Hedging Example (continued)Hedging ExampleYou own 100 shares of Butterfly.com and it is currently selling for $50You are afraid the price will plummet within the next 3 months to $10You purchase a put at $50No matter what happens, you can sell the stock for $50 … but only until the option expiresThen you must go out and buy more insuranceThis is called a “protective put”Insurance is not free. Using options as insurance is one way to keep your broker very happy. If you are sure the stock will fall, why not just sell the darned thing?
34Option Strategies Straddle (continued)StraddleThe simultaneous purchase (or sale) of a put and a call on the same underlying financial assetIf the price is volatile in either direction, up or down, you will make money (providing you pass the break-even point for both purchases plus the commissions)If the stock price is not volatile, you would sell (a.k.a. write, make) the straddle and hope that the price does not change greatlyTwo commissions at the same time! Your broker is gonna’ really love you!
35Option Strategies Straddle Example (continued)Straddle ExampleButterfly.com is selling for $50 but its price is extremely volatileYou purchase a call for $50 and a put for $50The price of the call option is $4 and the price of the put option is $5Now, no matter which way the price goes, one of your options will be in-the-moneyBut the call cost you $4 and the put cost you $5, so the price has to move at least $9 either way before you break-even. And we did not include the cost of the commissions. You paid two commissions for the straddle and possibly one more for exercising the option.Brilliant strategy, huh? Wait, it gets better.
36Option Strategies Spread (continued)SpreadThe simultaneous purchase and/or sale of two or more options with different strike prices and/or expiration datesExample: Stock selling for $50Buy a call at a strike price of $50Sell a call at a strike price of $55You paid for the call at $50, you got paid for the call at $55If the stock price rises, you make moneyThe possibilities are endless. And so are the commissions.
37Option Strategies(continued)Selling Options – a.k.a. Writing Options, Making OptionsSelling options allows the individual investor to play the part of the casinoYou become the Las Vegas casino and the option buyers are betting against you“More often than not, the option writer is right.”Most options expire worthlessHave I mentioned this yet?No matter what happens, the option seller gets the buyer’s premium – the price of the optionIf and when I ever begin trading options, it will be as an option writer. But that does not mean you still can not lose big.
38Option Strategies Selling Options (continued) Covered Options Options written against stock owned (or sold short) by the writerNaked Options – a.k.a. Uncovered OptionsOptions written on securities not owned (or sold short) by the writerThe amount of return to the option writer is always limited to the amount of option premium received. But the loss can be substantial, even unlimited in the case of a naked call, a.k.a. uncovered call.
39Option Strategies Selling Options (continued) Covered Call You own a stock and you are considering sellingYou write a covered call and receive the premiumIf the stock price jumps substantially, the stock will be called away from you (You will be forced to sell)If the stock price stays the same or goes down, the option will expire worthlessAnd you can then write another covered callIn either case, you get to keep the premiumThis strategy is only one of two option strategies I personally would ever consider.
40Option Strategies Selling Options (continued) Covered Call Example You own Butterfly.com and it is currently selling for $50 a share – You bought it at $40 and want to sellYou write a covered call at $55 and receive $500 since the premium for a $55 call is currently $5If the stock price jumps over $55, it will be called away from you at $55It is as if you actually sold it for $60 ( $55 + $5 )If the stock prices stays below $55, you can write another covered callThis strategy allows you to make extra money from a stock that you already own. Do you see any disadvantages?
41Option Strategies Selling Options (continued) Naked Put You are considering purchasing a stock and you have the cash to make the transactionYou write a naked put and receive the premiumIf the stock price falls substantially, the stock will be put to you (you will have to purchase it)If the stock price stays the same or goes up, the option will expire worthlessAnd you can then write another naked putIn either case, you get to keep the premiumThis is the only other option strategy that I would personally consider.
42Option Strategies Selling Options (continued) Naked Put Example You are considering purchasing Butterfly.com and it is currently selling for $50 and you have the cashYou write a naked put at $45 and receive a $300 premium since the cost of a $45 put is currently $3If the stock price falls below $45, the stock will be put to you at $45It is as if you bought it at $42 ( $45 - $3 )If the stock price stays the same or goes up, you can write another naked putThis strategy allows you to make extra money from a stock that you want to purchase. Do you see any disadvantages?
43Employee Stock Options Employee Stock Options (a.k.a. ESOs)An option granted to an employee by a company giving the employee the right to buy shares of stock in the company at a fixed price for a fixed timeUsually have some significant differences from normal call optionsCannot be soldExpire in many years (up to 10 years)Usually have a vesting period (typically 3 to 7 years)If you leave before the vesting period is over, you lose your stock optionsDuring the tech boom of the late 1990’s, ESOs were used extensively to attract employees to start-up companies.
44Employee Stock Options (continued)Employee Stock Options (a.k.a. ESOs)During the bear market, ESOs were the subject of much controversyThere is still some fall-out and publicity as companies and the SEC continue to wrangle over how and even if they should be usedCurrently, companies can give ESOs to their employees and not have to pay anythingThey do not reduce the company’s earningsMany companies have agreed to expense stock optionsUnfortunately, how do you come up with a price for something that is currently worthless?
45Employee Stock Options (continued)Employee Stock Options (a.k.a. ESOs)To make matters worse, while some people became fabulously wealthy through ESOs during the Internet mania,Example: John Moores of Padres & Peregrine fameMany other people were socked with crippling tax burdens on worthless pieces of paper when their companies collapsed!How can that be, you ask?The AMT (Alternative Minimum Tax) does not care if you never exercise the optionsYou still owe the tax on the paper gainEven if you never were able to realize the gain – Bizarre!
46Valuations of Options – Revisited “Wait a minute. Did you ask, ‘How do you come up with a price for something that is currently worthless?’”Yes, that is correct. Since many ESOs are “out-of-the-money”, often by a large amount, or can not be exercised for a long time, or both, how does the company put a price on it?The financial world currently uses a system called the Black-Shoales Option Pricing ModelIt may sound impressive, but it is really very sillyIn my humble opinion…Chapter 16 is devoted to the Black-Shoales model. We are going to ignore it, if you do not mind.
47Valuations of Options – Revisited Example: The Black-Shoales Option Pricing ModelStock currently selling for $7.50 per shareEmployee stock option has an exercise price of $10It is currently “out-of-the-money”Plus the option can not be exercised for 3 yearsThe Black-Shoales model might say that the employee stock option is worth $2.50Huh? You can not sell it. You can not exercise it for 3 years.It is “out-of-the-money.” How is it worth $2.50? The stock price might never go over $10. And if you are unfortunate enough to be affected by the AMT, you might have to pay taxes on it!
48Stock-Index OptionsA put or call option written on a specific stock market index, such as the S&P 500A stock-index option allows an investor to purchase or sell an option that responds to a stock market indexCan hedge a portfolio by purchasing a put on a stock-index option that represents the portfolioActs as insurance against a large loss (until it expires)Over 75 indices representedLarge, mid, small cap stocksDomestic, international, regional, country-specificWhether speculating or hedging, it is still risky and expensive.
49Other Types of Options Interest Rate Options Currency Options LEAPS Put and call options written on fixed-income securities such as bondsCurrency OptionsPut and call options written on foreign currenciesCan be an important tool for foreign investors and multi-national corporations who must periodically convert U. S. Dollars to and from other currenciesLEAPSLong-term Equity Anticipation SecuritiesLong-term options – 9 months to 3 years (?)
50WarrantsA long-lived option that gives the holder the right to buy stock in a company at a price specified on the warrantWarrants are usually issued by the same company that issues the underlying stockOften as accompanying securities to bondsOr as compensation to employees (like ESOs)Unlike options where each contract represents 100 shares of stock, one warrant represents the right to buy one share of stockWarrants are always call optionsThere are no put warrants
51Final Comments on Options? STAY AWAY FROM THEM!The possibilities are endless, and so are the commissions.(Wait! Let’s hear what Optionetics has to say about options!)
52CHAPTER 15 – REVIEW Stock Options Chapter Sections: Options on Common StocksThe Options Clearing CorporationWhy Options?Stock Index OptionsOption Intrinsic Values and “Moneyness”Option Payoffs and ProfitsUsing Options to Manage RiskOption Trading StrategiesArbitrage and Option Pricing BoundsPut-Call ParityNext week: Chapter 14, Futures Contracts