Organic Compounds Compounds that make up living organisms
ORGANIC molecules include a) carbohydrates (sugar & starches), b) lipids (fats & oils), c) proteins (such as enzymes). d) nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) Important INORGANIC molecules include a) oxygen (for respiration) b) carbon dioxide (for photosynthesis) c) water (for many functions).
Organic compounds Only produced in living organisms. May contain eg nitrogen, sulphur, iron and phosphorous. ALL contain: Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen NSFeP C O H
CARBON can make 4 bonds C H H H H C O O METHANE CO 2
Proteins and Nitrogen All proteins are composed of C, H, O and Nitrogen amino acids Building blocks are amino acids polypeptides Amino acids join to form polypeptides proteins Polypeptides form proteins fibrousglobular 3D Structure usually fibrous or globular Amino acid sequence Amino acid sequence determines structure/function
MENU Key Words Exercises Quick Quiz MCQ Videos Extra slides
key words Organic Carbon backbone Polymerisation Condensation Hydrolysis Monosaccharide Disaccharide Polysaccharide Lipid Fat Glycerol Fatty acid Phospholipid Protein Amino acid Globular Monomer Dimer Polymer Oxygen CO2 Water Dipole Hydrogen bond Back to menu
quick quiz 1.Condensation involves removal of a ____ molecule 2.Hydrolysis ____ the bonds in polymers 3.____ is the process of joining monomers together 4.Condensation is the reaction that ____ monomers 5.____ are the monomers of carbohydrates 6.Starch is a ____ 7.____ are made of glycerol and fatty acids 8.Proteins are made from ____ ____ 9.Proteins may be fibrous or ____ 10.Bonds within organic molecules are usually ____ energy 11.Molecules with a positive & negative side are called ____ 12.Approx. 75% of organisms are made of ____ Back to menu Answers
quick quiz answers 1.Condensation involves removal of a water molecule 2.Hydrolysis breaks the bonds in polymers 3.Polymerisation is the process of joining monomers together 4.Condensation is the reaction that joins monomers 5.Monosaccharides are the monomers of carbohydrates 6.Starch is a polysaccharide 7.Lipids are made of glycerol and fatty acids 8.Proteins are made from Amino acids 9.Proteins may be fibrous or globular 10.Bonds within organic molecules are usually high energy 11.Molecules with a positive & negative side are called dipoles 12.Approx. 75% of organisms are made of water Back to menu
Videos http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/25354- compounds-organic-compounds-video.htmhttp://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/25354- compounds-organic-compounds-video.htm ?? Back to menu
Exercises EXTRA READING Pathfinder p44 (or p38) – Read Biological macromolecules and Building Molecules Excellence in Biology pp110-4 Back to menu Workbook p51 Self-check Q1-14 & Q21 Pathfinder p46/40 Q1 and Q2a-d
Question 1 The correct formula for glucose is (a) C 12 H 22 O 11 (b) C 5 H 10 O 5 (c) C 4 H 8 O 4 (d) C 6 H 12 O 6 29 √ Back to menu
Question 2 Which is the most accurate description of a carbohydrate? A carbohydrate contains: (a) carbon and oxygen (b) carbon, oxygen and nitrogen (c) carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (d) carbon and hydrogen 30 √ Back to menu
Question 3 When two molecules of glucose combine, they form: (a) maltose (b) sucrose (c) fructose (d) ribose 31 √ Back to menu
Question 4 Which is the most accurate description of a protein. Proteins contain: (a) carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (b) carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen (c) carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen (d) carbon, nitrogen and oxygen 32 √ Back to menu
Question 5 Which statements are correct? Proteins are present in: (a) cell membranes (b) cell walls (c) cytoplasm (d) nucleus 33 √ Back to menu
Question 6 A protein is made up of a series of (a) glucose units (b) fatty acids (c) amino acids (d) carbohydrates 35 √ Back to menu
Question 7 Lipids are made up of (a) glycerol and amino acids (b) glycerol and fatty acids (c) protein and fatty acids (d) starch and fatty acids 36 √ Back to menu
ANSWER Correct √ 43 click arrow to return Back to menu
ANSWER Incorrect X 44 click arrow to return Back to menu
Condensation & Hydrolysis Polymerisation Polymerisation – joining monomers to form polymers Condensation /dehydrolysis Condensation /dehydrolysis – joins building blocks by removal of a water molecule Hydrolysis Hydrolysis breaks bonds by adding a water molecule Back to menu
Condensation (dehydrolysis) + HH OHHO H2OH2O Watch here Back to menu
Hydrolysis + HH O HHO H2OH2O Watch here Back to menu
3, 5 & 6 carbon sugars Sugars are simple carbohydrates (monomers). TRIOSE - 3 carbons PENTOSE – 5 carbons HEXOSE – 6 carbons CCC CCCCCC CCCCCC Back to menu
HEXOSE eg Glucose and Fructose PENTOSE eg Ribose & Deoxyribose Simple sugars often form a “ring” structure We will see this one again soon!!
Carbohydrates (CH 2 O) n Molecular formula (CH 2 O) n eg glucose is C 6 H 12 O 6 or (CH 2 O) 6 High energy bonds store energy Monosaccharide & disaccharides = sugars Polysaccharides Polysaccharides include starch SUMMARY Back to menu
1.Which three elements are present in all organic molecules? ____ ____ ____ 2. Glucose is a monosaccharide, whereas starch is a _________________ 3. Name the chemical process which joins monomers together _______________ 4. What molecule is removed during this reaction? 5. Name the reaction which splits polymers. CHO POLYSACCHARIDE CONDENSATION / DEHYDROLYSIS WATER HYDROLYSIS Back to menu
Lipids Fatsoils Fats (solid at room temperature) and oils (liquid) buoyancyinsulationstructure Functions: buoyancy, insulation & structure Energy store Energy store (2x as much, per g, as carbohydrates) C, H and O Pure lipids consist only of C, H and O. Hydrophobic Hydrophobic (do not like water) Phospholipids = 1 hydrophilic phosphate head + 2 hydrophobic fatty acids SUMMARY Back to menu
Lipids C, H and O Pure lipids consist only of C, H and O. hydrophobic Lipids are hydrophobic (do not like water)
OIL and water This is really important in membranes – just wait and see!
1.Which three elements are present in pure lipids? ____ ____ ____ 2. Functions of lipids include _________ ________ _________and ___________ 3. Lipids are ____________ (water hating) 4. Oil and water don’t _____(they are immiscible) 5. Lipids which are solid at room temperature are known as _______ CHO BUOYANCY HYDROPHOBIC MIX FATS STRUCTUREINSULATIONENERGY STORAGE Back to menu
in organic molecules Oxygen Oxygen - O 2 - most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, approx 21% of atmosphere. Essential for respiration. Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide - CO 2 comprises approx 0.04% of the atmosphere. Essential for photosynthesis. Water Water – H 2 O comprises about 75% of organisms and it’s properties are extremely important to life.........
Water Water is the main component (about 75%) of cells and, therefore, organisms. The properties of water are vital to the functioning of the cell and the organism Major solvent of the body. Provides a habitat for numerous aquatic organisms.
2 Hydrogen atoms + 1 Oxygen atom O H H H2OH2O Back to menu
Oxygen is a much larger atom than Hydrogen and has a stronger pull on shared electrons O HH - - - - - - - -
The oxygen side of the molecule becomes more negative, the hydrogen side becomes more positive O HH - + Back to menu
The molecule is said to be dipolar (has two poles). O HH - +
Hydrogen bonds Water molecule is a dipole (has + and – sides) Water will attract other dipoles (eg other water molecules) AND ions. WATER WATER surface tension WATER IONS ionic compounds dissolve This attraction forms “hydrogen bonds”