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Honors Biology Module 2 Lesson 3 Tom DeRosa Creation Studies Institute 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Honors Biology Module 2 Lesson 3 Tom DeRosa Creation Studies Institute 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Honors Biology Module 2 Lesson 3 Tom DeRosa Creation Studies Institute 1

2 Kingdom Monera The combined weight of all microscopic organisms far exceeds the combined weight of all other living organisms on earth! The number of organisms from kingdom Monera that live in your body exceeds the number of cells that make up your body! 2

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4 Kingdom Monera: Prokaryotic cell 4

5 What day did God Create the Kingdom Monera? Genesis 1:11-12 5

6 Monera Simple and Challenging! “Some members of kingdom Monera live on dust particles floating 6 kilometers (20,000 ft.) above the surface of the earth. Others thrive and multiply in temperatures that are too extreme for any other organism, and some survive in the presence of radiation that would kill most other organisms. “ p37 6

7 Evolution: The Origin of Life? Looking for single cells that live in extreme environments and autotrophism; that is, their ability to make food using materials (H 2, S, CO 2 ) in the earth's crust Bacteria are the most ancient life forms ??? 7

8 8 Evolutionists have suggested that the archaea may be the little-changed descendants of the first forms of life on earth. Rocks in Australia dated at ~3.5 billion years old contain bubbles of methane

9 BACTERIA = Kingdom of Monera Although some bacteria are pathogens ( an organism that causes disease) most are useful. Most bacteria are so small that under a light microscope you can only see them as little dots. The dot on the “i” in your text book contains thousand. They measure 1um, 1 millionth of I meter 9

10 Examples of Useful Bacteria They make cheese by feeding on the milk producing lactic acid (sour taste) making curds. These curds are used to make cheese Lactococcus lactis bacteria make Colby or cheddar cheese, 10

11 Cynobacteria Found in almost every conceivable habitat, from oceans to fresh water to bare rock to soil, Produce the compounds responsible for "earthy" odors we detect in soil and some bodies of water They produce a greenish slime. They use the process of photosynthesis to make food 11

12 Examples Cynbacteria 12

13 13 Their cells have no distinct, membrane-bounded organelles.

14 Parts Capsule Some bacteria have a that surrounds the cell wall. Cell Wall Most bacteria have a cell wall. –Note : The absence or presence of a cell wall as well as the composition of the cell wall (if it exists) are used to classify bacteria. –cell wall holds the contents of the bacterium together, regulates the amount of water that a bacterium can absorb, and holds the cell into one of three basic shapes. 14

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16 Parts continued plasma membrane. Membrane is made up of certain chemicals called phospholipids and other chemicals called proteins. Cytoplasm a semifluid substance throughout the interior of the cell, supporting the DNA and the ribosome Fimbriae outside of the cell wall and capsule, are fibrous bristles are typically used for grasping. 16

17 Bacterial Flagellum Filament 17 Hook Basal Body

18 Bacterial Flagellum Motor Tail moves at 100,000 rpm Moves in two directions: forward and reverse Reversing after ¼ of a turn Acid (proton) driven 40 operational parts Rotary motor cooled by water 18

19 The Eating Habits of Bacteria There is large diversity of eating habits among bacteria. Bacteria are producers of their own food, some are consumers (eating other organisms, and most are decomposers eating dead things. Saprophyte – An organism that feeds on dead matter 19

20 Eating Habits continued Even though most bacteria are heterotrophic (depend on other organism for food) There are many forms of autotrophic bacteria as well. Autotrophic bacteria manufacture their own food: photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. 20

21 Chemosynthetic bacteria  Chemosynthesis, bacteria promote chemical reactions which release energy rather than using energy.  The bacteria then use that energy, along with other chemicals, to manufacture their food.  These bacteria convert chemicals that living organisms can't use into chemicals that certain living organisms can use. 21

22 Bacteria and Oxygen O 2 Aerobic – Requires O 2 for life Anerobic – Does not require O 2 for energy to break down food. 22

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25 Binary fission in which this asexual reproduction takes place and the two resultant daughter cells are genetically identical. 25 A “mutation” results in asexual reproduction result when the DNA of the parent is not copied correctly.

26 Multiplication Factor Bacteria Reproducing Under ideal conditions, a bacterium can divide in about 20 minutes. One bacterium could multiply into more than a billion bacteria in about 10 hours. Continued for a whole week, the bacteria formed would have a combined weight that is larger than the entire planet! 26

27 Limiting Factors for Bacteria Populations Bacteria have limited supply of food would eventually decrease They would first grow exponentially without any hindrance. Then reach a point of Steady State in which the numbers that die are equally replaced with the new members When the resources are ended the curve proceeds in exponential decline 27

28 28 Logistic growth – Population growth that is controlled by limited resources

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