7The cytoskeleton is responsible for the organisation of the organelles inside a cell. It is the bulk of the cell and assists with cell motility, mitosis and meiosis, and maintaining the shape and stability of the cell. The cytoskeleton is made up of long fibres of polymers and subunits that form into one of the following:MicrotubulesIntermediate FilamentsMicrofilaments
8MicrotubulesMicrotubules are long, straight, hollow and rigid cylinders of about 25nm in diameter.They are constructed of alternating identical subunits of alpha and beta protein tubulin, forming a protofilament.
9Its walls are made up of 13 protofilaments which correlate with one another laterally and the filament is able to increase or decrease in length by adding or removing proteins.
15The model for dynamic instability of individual microtubules.
16Microtubules are highly labile structures that are sensitive to specific antimitotic drugs Chemical structures of colchicine(秋水仙碱) and taxol(紫杉醇)
17Microtubules are dynamic structure which is seen in bundles and found in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells. microtubule dynamic in vivo.mov
18Microtubules growing from the centrosome. Normal tissue-culture cell(B) The cell were treated with colcemid for 1 hour to depolymerize their microtubules and were then allowed to recover; microtubules appear first in a starlike aster and then elongate toward the periphery of the cellMicrotubules growing from the centrosome.Centrosome－Microtubules Organizing Centercentrosome
19Microtubule-associated proteins MAP-1MAP-2TauMAP-4MAPs bind to microtubules and modify their properties.
21Functions of Microtubules Maintenance of the cell morphologyCilia and flagella and centrioles are made from microtubuleMaintenance organelles position and organelles movementMembrane vesicle and protein transportChromosome movement and regulation of mitosisCell signal transduction
22Microtubules help maintain the shape of the cell and act as tracks along which organelles can move. Kinesin and Dynein
23CentriolesCentrioles are short cylinders with a pattern of microtubule triplets.Centrioles may be involved in microtubule formation and disassembly during cell division and in the organization of cilia and flagella.
27The interphase array of microtubules in a cultured fibroblast
28Cilia and flagellaCilia (small and numerous) and flagella (large and single) have a pattern of microtubules and are involved in cell movement.Cilia and flagella move when the microtubule doublets slide past one another.Each cilium and flagellum has a basal body at its base.Basal bodies have the same microtubule arrangement as centrioles and are believed to be derived from them. The basal body initiates polymerization of the nine outer doublets of a cilium or flagellum.
34MicrofilamentsMicrofilaments are left-handed helices formed by two-strands of F-actin (fibrinous-actin) polymers.These are composed of rough spherical G-actin (globular-actin) monomers.They are the thinnest of the three cytoskeleton filaments and are about 8nm in diameter.
36The trapping of ADP in an actin filament The trapping of ADP in an actin filament. An actin molecule has a structure with two domains that are hinged around an ATP-binding site. The bound ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP immediately after the molecule becomes incorporated into an actin filament. In order for the ADP to be replaced by ATP, the hinge would have to open.
37Three-dimensional structure of an actin molecule Three-dimensional structure of an actin molecule. Each actin molecule is a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long that has a molecule of ATP tightly associated with it.
38(B) Actin molecule has the binding site for ATP (C) Actin molecule interact with each other toform helical polymer(D) Minus end and Plus end
39The time course of actin polymerization in a test tube
40Specific drugs change the state of actin polymerization and thereby affect cell behavior Cytochalasins-- to bind specifically to the fast-growing plus ends of actin filaments, preventing the addition of actin molecules.Phalloidin—to stabilize actin filaments and inhibits their depolymerization.
45Functions of microfilaments Maintenance of the cell shapeMuscle contractionCell division-contractile ringCell movements-cyclosis, ruffled membrane locomotion, phagocytosisCell signal transduction: Rho-GTPaseMembrane vesicle and protein transport
46Actin filaments play a structural role in intestinal microvilli and also interact with motor molecules, such as myosin.actin_dynamics.mov
47Actin filaments can form both stable and labile structures in cells. Stable actin filaments form the core of microvilli (微绒毛)and are a crucial component of the contractile apparatus of muscle cells. Many cell movements, however, depend on labile structures constructed from actin filaments.
58Intermediate Filaments Intermediate filaments are rope like polymers of fibrous polypeptides.They are 10nm in diameter and are therefore intermediate in thickness between microfilaments and microtubules.
59Intermediate filaments are composed of nuclear lamins, keratins, type III intermediate filaments, neurofilaments. They are tissue specific and differ in the type of protein they contain.