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Production Technology (IND 006) Preparatory Year, Faculty of Engineering, Fayoum University Dr. Ahmed Salah Abou Taleb Lecturer, Industrial Engineering.

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Presentation on theme: "Production Technology (IND 006) Preparatory Year, Faculty of Engineering, Fayoum University Dr. Ahmed Salah Abou Taleb Lecturer, Industrial Engineering."— Presentation transcript:

1 Production Technology (IND 006) Preparatory Year, Faculty of Engineering, Fayoum University Dr. Ahmed Salah Abou Taleb Lecturer, Industrial Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Fayoum University Lecture No. 4 1

2 Introduction 2

3 3

4 2. NON-FERROUS ALLOYS Non-Ferrous materials and alloys defined as the materials that contain a negligible amount of iron. Non-Ferrous metals and alloys play a large and indispensable role in modern technology. Aluminum Non-Ferrous Copper Titanium Magnesium Lead & Tin Nickel ZincPrecious Mat. 4

5 A- Aluminum: Light and soft material Ductile and not very strong. High strength to weight ratio. Excellent corrosion resistance due to formation thin oxide surface film. High thermal and electrical conductivity. Applications: aircraft, cans, foil, cooking pans, electric transmission lines, and heat sinks. 2. NON-FERROUS ALLOYS 5

6 High thermal and electrical conductivity High corrosion resistance. Low in strength and hardness. High ductility and formability. Bronze - alloy of 90% copper and 10% tin. Brass - alloy of 65% copper and 35% zinc. Applications: electrical wiring, radiator, heat exchangers, and springs. B- Copper: 2. NON-FERROUS ALLOYS 6

7 C- Magnesium: 2. NON-FERROUS ALLOYS Lightest engineering metal available. High strength to weight ratio. Applications: aerospace, Aircraft & missile components, tennis rackets, suitcase frames, material handling equipments and sporting goods. 7

8 D- Nickel: 2. NON-FERROUS ALLOYS Excellent corrosion resistance at elevated temperature High strength at elevated temperature. It is used extensively in stainless steel and in nickel- based alloys. Applications: jet engine components, gas turbine, rockets and nuclear power plants, in food handling and chemical processing equipment. 8

9 E- Zinc: 2. NON-FERROUS ALLOYS Low melting point metal, Application: in galvanizing on iron and steel for providing corrosion resistance, and die casting of components for automobile and appliance industries. 9

10 Excellent corrosion resistance High strength to weight ratio. It can be alloyed with aluminum, vanadium, molybdenum, manganese, or other alloying elements to improve properties such as strength and hardenability. Applications: aerospace, missiles, marine, racing cars, chemical eqiupment and golf clubs. F- Titanium: 2. NON-FERROUS ALLOYS 10

11 Used in soldering alloys due to their low melting points: G- Lead and Tin: 2. NON-FERROUS ALLOYS Lead: Has properties of high density, resistance to corrosion, softness, low strength, ductility and good workability. Applications: storage batteries, X-ray, and bearing. Tin: Has lower milting point than lead, low strength, low hardness, and good ductility. Applications: storing food and journal bearing. 11

12 H- Precious Materials: 2. NON-FERROUS ALLOYS Among huge well-known precious metals, the most important ones are: Gold: is soft and ductile and has good corrosion resistance at any temperature. Silver: is a ductile material and it has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity of any metal. Platinum: is a soft, ductile and has good corrosion resistance even at elevated temperature. 12

13 3. CERAMIC MATERIALS Are inorganic materials that consists of metallic and non-metallic elements chemically bonded together. Are used extensively in the electrical industry because of their high electrical resistance. Most of them are hard, brittle, high melting point with low thermal and electrical conductivity, low thermal expansion, good chemical and thermal stability, high modulus of elasticity and high compressive strength. 13

14 3. CERAMIC MATERIALS Glass products are most common examples. Used in abrasive applications such as grinding because of their high hardness. Many ceramics materials such as Tungsten Carbide, Titanium Carbide, Silicon Nitride, Cubic Boron Nitride, and Polycrystalline Diamond Cutting Tools offer greater tool life than High-Speed Tool Steel. Diamond, is the hardest substance known up to now. Cement used in concrete 14

15 4. POLYMERS Polymers are organic materials. A common synonym for polymers is plastics, a name that is derived from the deformability associated with the fabrication of most polymeric products. High corrosion resistance High resistance to chemicals Low electrical and thermal conductivity Low density High strength to weight ratio Noise reduction Wide choice of colors and transparencies Ease of manufacturing.. 15

16 4. POLYMERS Thermoplastic Polymers Thermosetting Elastomers 16

17  Can be subjected to multiple heating and cooling cycles without altering molecular structure.  Low in modulus of elasticity, tensile strength, hardness and density,  High in ductility and coefficient of thermal expansion.  Application: insulating material for electric cables, packing materials, water pipe and Paints.  such as Polyethylene, polypropylene,.. etc 4. POLYMERS A- Thermoplastics Polymer: 17

18  Do not become soft to any significant extent with increasing temperature.  Cannot be re-melted or softened after solidification.  More rigid, brittle, capable of higher service temperature and harder than thermoplastics.  Used as pot handle, electrical switch cover, and printed circuit boards.  such as Epoxy, Melamines Phenolics and Urethanes 4. POLYMERS B- Thermosetting Polymer: 18

19  have ability to undergo large elastic deformations and return to their original shapes when unloaded.  Applications: tires, seals, and shock absorbers.  Such as natural or synthetic rubbers, and silicones 4. POLYMERS C- Elastomers Polymer: 19

20 5. COMPOSITE MATERIALS Composite materials are mixture of two or more materials to produce a new material whose properties would not be attainable by conventional means. Structure consists of particles or fibers of one phase mixed in a second phase (matrix). The properties depend on components, physical shape of components, and the way they are combined to form the final shape. 20

21 5. COMPOSITE MATERIALS Applications: Air-dried bricks by mixing the clay with straw, Horse hair was used to reinforce the plaster used on the walls and ceiling of buildings. Carbon fiber reinforced frames for tennis rackets and shafts for golf clubs. Racing bicycles are made from composite materials because. ` 21

22 5. COMPOSITE MATERIALS Fibrous composites: High strength continuous or discontinuous thin fibers are encased within tough matrix. Matrix functions are to bond fibers together, to protect fibers from damage and to transmit load from one fiber to another. Glass fibers is the most common material in this category. 22

23 Mechanical Properties 23

24 Mechanical Properties Tensile Stress Stress Compressive Stress Shear Stress 24

25 Stress - Strain Curve Stress,  25

26 Mechanical Properties Malleability: ability of material to be plastically deformed by hammering or filling into sheet form. Example: Gold. Ductility: ability of material to be plastically deformed by tension before fracture occurs. Example: Wire drawing (Copper wire). Hardness: ability of material to resist scratching or penetration. Example: Glass. Brittleness: tendency to fracture without appreciable deformation particularly under low stress. Example: Glass. Fatigue: the failure of a material under the action of repeated alternating stresses. Example: Aluminum wire. 26

27 Mechanical Properties Toughness: ability of material to withstand stresses as well as deformation. Example: Steel. Elasticity: ability of material to return to its original shape after being subjected to a load that caused deformation. Example: Elastic band. Plasticity: ability of material to undergo some degree of permanent deformation without rupture. Example: Hot working a metal and plaster sine. Stiffness: a measure of a materials ability to resist deformation or deflection under load. Example: Bridge structure. 27

28 Selection of Materials A material is selected for any specific application according to: 1- Properties (mechanical and physics). 2- Processing: the method of processing affect the product's final properties, service, life and cost. 3- Cost and availability. 4- Appearance, service life and recycling. 28

29 Selection of Manufacturing Process manufacturing process selection depends on: 1- Part shape, size and thickness. 2- Material and its properties. 3- Final properties. 4- Dimensional and surface finish. 5- Operational and manufacturing cost. 29

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