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Botany Study of Plants.

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Presentation on theme: "Botany Study of Plants."— Presentation transcript:

1 Botany Study of Plants

2 General Characteristics
Autotrophs Eukaryotes 400,000 known species Cell walls Plastids Create food and habitat for animals

3 Phylum Bryophyta Non-vascular plants (no true roots, stems or leaves)
Must live in moist environment Must be small and close to ground

4 P. Bryophyta, Class Muscopsida
Mosses 9500 species Small, grow in clumps Reproduce by spores Pioneer plants

5 P. Bryophyta, Class Hepaticopsida
Liverwarts 6000 species Very small Moist, warm environments

6 Vascular Plants Have vascular tissue 250,000 species
Cell walls contain lignin (tough material for support) Adapted to survive in tough conditions

7 Structure 1 Roots – Absorb moisture and nutrients, anchor plants
Leaves – Use chlorophyll to produce food Stems: Transfer materials between roots and leaves

8 Structure 2 Vascular Tissue:
Xylem – Water and minerals from roots to other parts of the plants Phloem – Sugars and organic material from leaves to other parts of the plants

9 Vascular Plant Groups Seedless Plants Seed Plants

10 Seedless Plants Have sperm that swim to egg cells (in dew)
Simple plants Do photosynthesis 4 groups

11 Seedless Group 1 Phylum Psilophyta – Whisk Ferns

12 Seedless Group 2 Phylum Sphenophyta – Horse Tails

13 Seedless Group 3 Phylum Lycophyta – Club Mosses

14 Seedless Group 4 Phylum Pterophyta – Ferns

15 Seed Plants Reproduce with seeds
Seeds contain plant embryo and cotyledon (embryonic leaves) Seeds help survive poor conditions

16 Groups of Seed Plants Gymnosperm – naked seeds Angiosperm – Flowering plants

17 Gymnosperms Seeds in cones Usually evergreens
Leaves needle-like or scale-like

18 Phylum Coniferophyta Cone Bearers Pine Trees

19 Phylum Cycadophyta Cycads, palm-like (but not palms) Ancient group

20 Phylum Ginkgophyta Gingko Leaves fan-shaped Only one species
Ancient group

21 Phylum Gnetophyta Ex: Welwitschia, Ephedra About 70 species
Assumed to be the closest related to flowering plants


23 Angiosperm Flowering Plants About 235,000 species

24 Phylum Anthophyta Mature seeds are enclosed in fruits
Most species of plants Flowers are reproductive structures

25 Class Monocotyledon Produce seeds with 1 embryonic seed leaf
Flower parts usually in threes Leaves with parallel veins Almost all are herbaceous Vascular bundles scattered Roots diffuse

26 Examples

27 Class Dicotyledon 2 Embryonic leaves (dicots) Flower parts in 4 or 5’s
Leaf veins in a network Vascular Bundles in a circle Taproot

28 Examples of Dicots

29 Roots, Stems, and Leaves Plant Organs


31 Roots: *Absorb water and nutrients
*Anchor plants in ground Stems *support plant body *transport nutrients among plant parts Leaves *carry out photosynthesis *funnel water to roots *exchange sites for oxygen and carbon dioxide

32 Root, Stem, and Leaf Tissues
Section 23-1 Leaf Stem Root Dermal tissue Vascular tissue Ground tissue

33 Tissue Systems Dermal: *outer covering of plants
*single layer of epidermal cells *covered with waxy cuticle that protects against water loss Vascular: *xylem and phloem carry water and nutrients through the plant Ground: *parenchyma, collenchyma, schlerenchyma, support the plant and site of photosynthesis Meristematic: *only in tips of shoots and roots, responsible for plant growth Page 581 Page 582 Page 583 Page 580

34 Fibrous Roots vs. Taproots
Fibrous roots are shallow and wide-reaching Taproots are DEEP and concentrated downwards See pages in text

35 Figure 35.14 Primary growth of a root

36 Water Transport in a Root
Section 23-2 Epidermis Endodermis Cortex Casparian strip Cell wall Root hairs Cortex Cell membrane Active transport of minerals Phloem Xylem Movement of water by osmosis Vascular Cylinder

37 Figure 35.3 Radish root hairs

38 Figure 35.18 Organization of primary tissues in young stems

39 Layers of a Tree Trunk Section 23-3 Wood Bark Cork
Contains old, nonfunctioning xylem that helps support the tree Contains active xylem that transports water and minerals Produces new xylem and phloem, which increase the width of the stem Transports sugars produced by photosynthesis Produces protective layer of cork Contains old, nonfunctioning phloem that protects the tree Xylem: Heartwood Cork Cambium Phloem Vascular Cambium Xylem: Sapwood

40 Stem adaptations See page 594
Tuber – stem growing underground (potato) Bulb – central stem surrounded by leaves (amaryllis) Corm – thickened stem that stores food (gladiolus) Rhizome – horizontal, underground stem (ginger)

41 Figure 35.5 Simple versus compound leaves

42 The Internal Structure of a Leaf
Section 23-4 Cuticle Veins Epidermis Palisade mesophyll Xylem Vein Phloem Spongy mesophyll Epidermis Stoma Guard cells

43 Transpiration A B Evaporation of water molecules out of leaves.
Section 23-5 A B Evaporation of water molecules out of leaves. Pull of water molecules upward from the roots.

44 Function of Guard Cells – gas exchange (CO2 in, O2 out)
Section 23-4 Guard cells Guard cells Inner cell wall Inner cell wall Stoma Stoma Open Stoma Closed

45 Figure Modified leaves: Tendrils, pea plant (top left); spines, cacti (top right); succulent (bottom left); brightly-colored leaves, poinsettia (bottom right)

46 Water tranport Capillary action – water moves upward through narrow tubes against the force of gravity (adhesion and cohesion)

47 Food Transport Movement from source (where sugars are produced by photosynthesis) in leaves to where sugars are used or stored

48 Compare/Contrast Table
Section 24-1 Comparing Plant Propagation Methods Method Procedure Cuttings A length of stem that includes lateral buds is cut from the parent plant and partially buried in soil or rooting mixture to take root. A piece of stem is cut from the parent plant and attached to another plant. A piece of lateral bud is cut from the parent plant and attached to another plant. Grafting Budding Vegetative reproduction: takes place naturally; parent plant puts out runners that grow new plants (Ex. Strawberries)

49 Plant Responses (ADAPTATIONS)
Tropisms: responses of plants to environmental stimuli Types of tropisms: gravitropism phototropism thigmotropism

50 Gravitropism and Phototropism
Gravitropism: response of a plant to gravity – stems go up, roots go down Phototropism: response of a plant to light (“bending” toward the light)

51 Meristems control plant growth….

52 Thigmotropism Response of plants to touch Can stunt growth
Can cause “twining” of plant tendrils with vines and climbing plants *can have as a quick response – Venus flytrap

53 Photoperiodism and Flowering
Section 25-2 Short-Day Plant Long-Day Plant Midnight Noon Long Day Midnight Noon Short Day Midnight Noon Interrupted Night

54 Compare/Contrast Table – plant adaptations
Section 25-3 Comparing Carnivorous Plants, Epiphytes, and Parasites Characteristics Environment Method of obtaining nutrients Examples Epiphytes host plant gather moisture from rainfall and produce their own food Spanish moss, orchid Parasites host plant extract moisture and nutrients from host plant dodder, mistletoe Carnivorous Plants bog leaves that trap and digest insects pitcher plant, sundew, Venus’ flytrap

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