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Introduction to Anatomy By Dr.Maher T.AL-Hadidi Faculty of Medicine University of Jordan Spring 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Anatomy By Dr.Maher T.AL-Hadidi Faculty of Medicine University of Jordan Spring 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Anatomy By Dr.Maher T.AL-Hadidi Faculty of Medicine University of Jordan Spring 2012

2 Most derived from Latin and / Greek language. Most derived from Latin and / Greek language. Important for clear communication in Medicine. Important for clear communication in Medicine. To describe the body clearly and indicate the position of its parts in relative to each other. To describe the body clearly and indicate the position of its parts in relative to each other. Medical Language

3 Objectives Divide medical words into their basic parts. Find the meaning of basic combining words.

4  Word Root Origin of the word. eg: Gastr = Stomach eg: Gastr = Stomach  Suffix Word ending. Gastr / ic Related to.Gastr / ic Related to. Gastr / itis Inflammation.Gastr / itis Inflammation. Gastr / ectomy Removal.Gastr / ectomy Removal. ………/ Logy Science.………/ Logy Science. Basic word parts

5 Basic word parts …continued Prefix Word beginning. Prefix Word beginning. Epi Above eg: Epi/gastr /icEpi Above eg: Epi/gastr /ic Hypo Below eg: Hypo/gastr /icHypo Below eg: Hypo/gastr /ic Anti Against eg: Anti/bio /ticAnti Against eg: Anti/bio /tic A NO eg: A/vascularA NO eg: A/vascular Combining Vowel Joining the root to another or to the suffix. [Usually O] eg: Combining Vowel Joining the root to another or to the suffix. [Usually O] eg: Gastr /o/logyGastr /o/logy Gastr /o/intestinalGastr /o/intestinal Gastr /o/ hepaticGastr /o/ hepatic

6 Anatomical Position Referral position Worldwide constant method in describing a patient, assume he is in that specific position. As if the Person standing erect. Person standing erect. Facing forward. Facing forward. Palms turned forward. Palms turned forward. Feet by side. Feet by side.

7 Directional Terms To describe the position of one body part relative to another. Term Meaning Term Meaning Anterior Nearer to front of body Anterior Nearer to front of body Posterior Nearer to the back Posterior Nearer to the back Superior Nearer to the head Superior Nearer to the head Inferior Nearer to the feet Inferior Nearer to the feet Median Central line of the body Median Central line of the body Medial Nearer to the median line Medial Nearer to the median line Lateral Away from median line Lateral Away from median line Proximal Nearer to point of origin Proximal Nearer to point of origin Distal Away from point of origin Distal Away from point of origin Superficial Nearer to body surface Superficial Nearer to body surface Deep Away from body surface Deep Away from body surface

8 Body planes/Sections Flat surfaces that pass / cut throughout body levels. Midsagital → divide the body into two equal halves. Midsagital → divide the body into two equal halves. Sagital → divide body into two parts Sagital → divide body into two parts Horizontal → divide body into upper part and lower part. Horizontal → divide body into upper part and lower part. Coronal → divide the body into anterior part and posterior part. Coronal → divide the body into anterior part and posterior part.  Sections → used in Anatomy, Pathology and Surgery.  Planes → used in Radiology

9 Body Cavities Dorsal, consist of Dorsal, consist of Cranial cavity, contains brain etc.Cranial cavity, contains brain etc. Vertebral canal, contains spinal cord etc.Vertebral canal, contains spinal cord etc. Ventral, consist of Ventral, consist of Thoracic, contains heart, lungs etc.Thoracic, contains heart, lungs etc. Abdominal, contains abdominal organs etc.Abdominal, contains abdominal organs etc. Pelvic contains pelvic organs etc.Pelvic contains pelvic organs etc.

10 Bony Skeleton A calcified connective tissue that serve as storage for calcium & phosphorus. A calcified connective tissue that serve as storage for calcium & phosphorus. Act as levers for muscles to produce movements permitted by joints. Act as levers for muscles to produce movements permitted by joints. Contain internal soft tissue, Bone Marrow, where blood cells are formed. Contain internal soft tissue, Bone Marrow, where blood cells are formed. Form of 206 bones in adults, connected via spaces called joints. Form of 206 bones in adults, connected via spaces called joints.

11 Divisions Two divisions: 1.Axial skeleton (80 bones) (80 bones) 2.Appendicular skeleton (126 bones) (126 bones) Upper:Upper: Shoulder girdle Shoulder girdle Bones of upper limb Bones of upper limb Lower:Lower: Pelvic girdle Pelvic girdle Bones of lower limb Bones of lower limb

12 Shapes of bones 1.Long bones. eg. Humerus 2.Short bones. eg. Wrist bones 3.Flat bones. eg. Scapula 4.Irregular bones. eg. Vertebra 5.Sesamoid bones. eg. Patella

13 Types of bone tissue Classified according to relative amount of solid matrix, number and size of bone marrow cavities. Compact bone Compact bone Full with….Full with…. Designed for….Designed for…. Spongy bone Spongy bone Full with….Full with…. Designed for….Designed for…. Spongy bone Compact bone

14 Types of Joints Classified according to connective tissue type between articulating bones. 1.Synovial J. Contains (Synovial fluid) eg. Knee joint. eg. Knee joint. 2.Cartilaginous J. Contains (cartilage) eg. Intervertebral Joints eg. Intervertebral Joints 3.Fibrous Joints. Contains (fibrous CT) eg. Sutures between bones of skull. eg. Sutures between bones of skull.

15 Muscles Voluntary: 3. Skeletal ~700 Locations: Locations: SuperficialSuperficial DeepDeepFunctions: eg. Body Movements Involuntary: 1. Cardiac Heart 2. Smooth Organs

16 Principal superficial skeletal muscles Muscles are named according to: 1.Direction of its fibers eg Rectus, Transverse, Oblique. 2.Size of muscle eg Major, Minor, Vastus (huge). 3.Shape of muscle eg Deltoid, Trapezius, Gracilis (slender). 4.Main action eg. Flexor, Extensor, Abductor, Adductor. 5.Number of tendons of origin eg. Biceps, Triceps. 6.Location eg. Superficialis, Profundus (deep), Brachialis. 7.Origin and insertion eg. Brachioradialis, from brachium (humerus) to radius. (humerus) to radius.

17 Bone Markings  Bone structural features adapted for specific functions.  New bone will be deposited resulting in raised or roughened areas.Appears in response to tension on bone surfaces where tendons, ligaments, aponeurosis and fascia pull on the periosteum.  Compression on a surface of a bone results into a depression.

18 1. Bone outgrowths serve as points of attachments for connective tissue.  Tubercle د رنـه→ Small, rounded projection.  Tuberosity أحدوبـه→ Large, rounded projection.  Facet وجيـه → Smooth flat surface.  Spine شوكـه → Thornlike process.  Process نا تئ → projection on bone.  Trochanter المدور → Large blunt projection.  Protuberance حـدبه / نا شزه → Bone projection.  Crest عـرف → Elongated ridge of bone.  Line خـط → long, narrow ridge of bone.  Condyle لـقمه → large, round protuberance at the end of a bone. end of a bone.  Epicondyle لـقيـمـه → prominence above condyle.  Malleolus كـعبي → Rounded process.

19 2.Depressions and openings, which allow the passage of soft tissues as blood vessels and nerves. FFFForamenثـقبـه → Opening through a bone. FFFFossaحفـره → Shallow depression (trench). NNNNotchثـلمه → Nick (cut) at edge of a bone. FFFFissureشـق → Narrow slit between adjacent bones. SSSSulcusتـلـم → Groove along a bone surface. MMMMeatusصـماخ → Tubelike opening (passageway).


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