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Organic Molecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids.

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Presentation on theme: "Organic Molecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organic Molecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

2 Carbon – Magic Atom Basis of life as we know it (“organic”) 4 valence electrons = 4 available bonds Bonds to many other elements including itself Single, double or triple covalent bonds Most versatile bonding element

3 Organic Contain carbon Capable of 1 or more bonds In rings and/or chains Contains functional groups All may form polymers (macromolecules) Built by dehydration synthesis (anabolic) and reduced by hydrolysis (catabolic) Catalyzed by enzymes

4 Organic Polymers=Macromolecules

5 Functional chemical groups




9 Isomers

10 Carbohydrates Polymers of monosaccharides (simple sugars) C 6 H 12 O 6 = glucose sugar Disaccharides C 12 H 22 O 11 = sucrose sugar Polysaccharides = starches, cellulose, pectins, and glycogen CH 2 O arrangement of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Glucose for energy/transport disaccharides/ convert to fat, glycogen or starch for storage


12 Lipids Fats, oils and waxes C, H, O in different ratios than carbohydrates Polymers of triglycerides form fats Triglycerides made of 1 glycerol (3-Carbon alcohol) and 3 fatty acids (end in –COOH) Insoluble in water because non-polar Energy storage molecules Includes phospholipids, terpenes, steroids (hormones), and prostaglandins


14 Proteins Polymers of amino acids (20 different; amino group, carboxyl group, hydrogen, and radical group) Structural molecules (fibrous proteins like keratin, collagen, and actin/myosin) and enzymes (globular proteins like antibodies) Peptide bonds are covalent links between amino acids (polypeptides) C, H, O, and N


16 Nucleic Acids Polymers of nucleotides (sugar, phosphate, and nitrogenous bases) Store heredity and pass it on C, H, O, N, and P Discussed later


18 Quiz Question #1 Name an isomer of glucose. Fructose and galactose are monosaccharide isomers of glucose

19 Question #2 Ear wax and sunflower oil are examples of which type of organic molecule? Lipids !!!!

20 Question #3 -NH2 is which functional chemical group? Amino group !

21 Question #4 Organic polymers are formed by what chemical process? Dehydration synthesis

22 Question #5 Which organic molecules carry our heredity? Nucleic acids

23 Question #6 Glycogen in animals carries out the same function as which substance in plants? Starch !

24 Question #7 What kind of proteins carry out structural roles? Fibrous proteins like keratin in hair and fingernails

25 Question #8 What kind of bond joins the amino group of one amino acid with the carboxyl group of another? That would be a peptide bond!

26 Question #9 Nitrogen is found in which organic molecule? That could be a protein or a nucleic acid !

27 Question #10 Give an example of a disaccharide that you might use in cooking. Sucrose, table sugar.

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