Carbon – Magic Atom Basis of life as we know it (“organic”) 4 valence electrons = 4 available bonds Bonds to many other elements including itself Single, double or triple covalent bonds Most versatile bonding element
Organic Contain carbon Capable of 1 or more bonds In rings and/or chains Contains functional groups All may form polymers (macromolecules) Built by dehydration synthesis (anabolic) and reduced by hydrolysis (catabolic) Catalyzed by enzymes
Functional chemical groups
Carbohydrates Polymers of monosaccharides (simple sugars) C 6 H 12 O 6 = glucose sugar Disaccharides C 12 H 22 O 11 = sucrose sugar Polysaccharides = starches, cellulose, pectins, and glycogen CH 2 O arrangement of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Glucose for energy/transport disaccharides/ convert to fat, glycogen or starch for storage
Lipids Fats, oils and waxes C, H, O in different ratios than carbohydrates Polymers of triglycerides form fats Triglycerides made of 1 glycerol (3-Carbon alcohol) and 3 fatty acids (end in –COOH) Insoluble in water because non-polar Energy storage molecules Includes phospholipids, terpenes, steroids (hormones), and prostaglandins
Proteins Polymers of amino acids (20 different; amino group, carboxyl group, hydrogen, and radical group) Structural molecules (fibrous proteins like keratin, collagen, and actin/myosin) and enzymes (globular proteins like antibodies) Peptide bonds are covalent links between amino acids (polypeptides) C, H, O, and N
Nucleic Acids Polymers of nucleotides (sugar, phosphate, and nitrogenous bases) Store heredity and pass it on C, H, O, N, and P Discussed later
Quiz Question #1 Name an isomer of glucose. Fructose and galactose are monosaccharide isomers of glucose
Question #2 Ear wax and sunflower oil are examples of which type of organic molecule? Lipids !!!!
Question #3 -NH2 is which functional chemical group? Amino group !
Question #4 Organic polymers are formed by what chemical process? Dehydration synthesis