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Health Sciences 1101 Medical Terminology Module 5 The Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems.

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Presentation on theme: "Health Sciences 1101 Medical Terminology Module 5 The Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Health Sciences 1101 Medical Terminology Module 5 The Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems

2 Basic Cardiovascular Terms Cardi/o or coron/o: Pertaining to the heart Vascul/o: Pertaining to the vessels Vas/o: Pertaining to a vessel, the vas deferens or ducts Cardiovascular: The heart and the vessels Phleb/o ven/o: Pertaining to a vein

3 A Brief Explanation of the Cardiovascular System Excellent YouTube Video

4 The Conducting System of the Heart The conducting system of the heart video

5 Cardiac Terms Endocardium: The thin layer that lines the inside of the heart and the heart valves Myocardium: The muscle layer of the heart Pericardium: The fibrous sac that encloses the heart Atri/o: Pertaining to the atrium (atria) Ventricul/o: Pertaining to the ventricles

6 Cardiac Function Terms Systole: The state of contraction of the heart Diastole: The state of relaxation of the heart -cardia: Condition of the heart Review terms: brady, tachy Arrhythmia: Irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat; dysrhythmia

7 Cardiac Pathology Terms Fibrillation: Abnormal quivering or contraction of heart fibers. Can lead to cardiac arrest and then death. Heart Failure: Condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs. Congestive Heart Failure: Reduced outflow of blood from the left side of the heart. Results in lung congestion, dyspnea, and fatigue.

8 Cardiac Pathology Terms Prolapse: to fall out of place Mitral valve prolapse: Condition in which the leaflets of the mitral valve prolapse into the left atrium during systole Rheumatic heart disease: Damage to the heart muscle and valves as a sequela to streptococcal infection. Murmur: Abnormal sound heard on auscultation, caused by defects in the valves or chambers of the heart

9 Cardiac Pathology Terms Coronary artery disease (CAD): Condition that affects the arteries of the heart, resulting in decreased blood flow to the myocardium. Myocardial Infaction (MI): Heart muscle damaged by partial or complete occlusion of one or more of the coronary arteries. AKA: Heart attack. Angina pectoris: Chest pain due to ischemia. Can be a symptom of MI.

10 Vascular Function Terms Angi/o: Pertaining to the vessels Aneurysm/o: Widening of the vessels Aort/o: Pertaining to the aorta Arteri/o: Pertaining to the arteries Ateriol/o: Pertaining to the arterioles Ather/o: Fatty plaque Thromb/o: blood clot Varic/o: dilated vein

11 Vascular Pathology Terms Embolus: A mass of undissolved matter present in a blood or lymphatic vessel brought there by the blood or lymph current. May be solid, liquid or gas and can cause infarcts Deep vein thrombosis: Formation of a blood clot in a deep vein of the body. Occur most frequently in the iliac and femoral veins Aneurysm: Localized dilation of a vessel wall due to weakness. Can lead to arteriorrhexis or phleborrhexis

12 Vascular Pathology Terms Transient ischemic attack (TIA): Temporary interference with blood supply to the brain. No long term damage. Stroke: Damage to brain due to interruption of blood supply. AKA: Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) Strokes are caused by hemorrhage in the brain or emboli and thrombi that occlude arteries.

13 Vascular Pathology Terms Hypertension: Consistently elevated blood pressure that is higher than normal Raynaud Disease: Vascular disorder in which the fingers and toes become cold, numb and painful Varicose veins: Swollen, distended veins caused by incompetent venous valves.

14 Vascular Pathology Terms Arteriosclerosis: Thickening, hardening, or loss of elasticity of the arterial walls. Can lead to altered tissue and organ function. Atherosclerosis: A type of arteriosclerosis characterized by the build up of fatty plaque.

15 Random Other CV Pathology Terms Kaposi Sarcoma: A malignancy of connective tissue including bone, fat, muscle and fibrous tissue.

16 Cardiovascular Diagnostics Bruit: Soft blowing sound heard on auscultation caused by turbulent blood flow. Cardiac enzyme studies: Blood tests to assess cardiac damage. CKMB and troponin-I: Blood tests that measure proteins specific to the heart that are relased as a result of recent MI. Echocardiography: The visualization of the heart through ultrasonography.

17 Cardiovascular Diagnostics Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG): Measurement of the electric activity of the heart muscle. Holter monitor: Monitoring device used to record 24 hours worth of ECG. Stress test: Method used to evaluate CV fitness by monitoring ECG while a patient is exercising.

18 Cardiovascular Treatment Statins: Drugs that reduce low density lipoproteins Thrombolytic therapy: Drugs used to dissolve blood clots Anticoagulation therapy: Drugs used to reduce blood clotting

19 Cardiovascular Treatment Cardiac catheterization: A catheter is threaded through a large blood vessel until it reaches into the heart Angioplasty: Any endovascular procedure that reopens narrowed blood vessels and restores forward blood flow

20 Cardiovascular Treatment Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG): Surgery that bypasses blocked coronary arteries using grafted vessels taken from other parts of the body Valvuloplasty: Restorative surgery on a valve, especially cardiac valves

21 Cardiovascular Treatment Automatic Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (AICD): implanted electric source with wires into heart. Senses rhythm and zaps if fibrillation is sensed. Pacemaker: implanted electric source with wires into heart. Provides low-level stimulation to maintain normal heart rhythm.

22 Immunology and the Lymphatic System

23 Lymphatic system Terms Aden/o: A gland Immun/o: The immune system Lymph/o: Cells and tissues of the lymphatic system Lymphaden/o: The lymph nodes Lymphangi/o: The vessels of the lymphatic system Splen/o: The spleen Thym/o: The thymus Phag/o: Swallowing or eating -phylaxis: Protection

24 Immune System Pathology Mononucleosis : Acute infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), characterized by a sore throat, fever, fatigue, and enlarged lymph nodes Lymphadenitis: Inflammation and enlargement of the lymph nodes usually as a result of infection Hodgkin Disease: Disease causing malignant solid tumors that may originate in lymphoid tissue. Can invade other organs if left untreated.

25 Immune System Pathology Lymphosarcoma: Malignant disorder of lymphatic tissue that is not related to Hodgkin disease. Also called non-Hodgkin lymphoma Kaposi Sarcoma: Connective tissue malignancy associated with HIV infections Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS): Systemic loss of immunity due to destruction of helper t cells by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

26 Lymphatic System Diagnostics Lymphangiography: Radiographic examination of the lymphatic system using an injected contrast medium Bone marrow aspiration biopsy: Removal of bone marrow tissue so that it can be evaluated microscopically Tissue typing: Technique used to determine histocompatibility (compatibility of tissues) for transplants

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