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 Support › Allows us to stand erect.  Protection › Ribs protect the heart and lungs.  Movement › Serve as attachment for skeletal muscles  Storage.

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Presentation on theme: " Support › Allows us to stand erect.  Protection › Ribs protect the heart and lungs.  Movement › Serve as attachment for skeletal muscles  Storage."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Support › Allows us to stand erect.  Protection › Ribs protect the heart and lungs.  Movement › Serve as attachment for skeletal muscles  Storage › Mineral, including calcium  Blood Cell Formation › hematopoiesis

3  Compact (dense) bone › Looks smooth and homogeneous  Spongy (cancellous) bone › Composed of small needlelike or flat pieces called trabeculae. › Has a lot of open space.

4  Compact bone: › Filled with canals and passages for nerves and vessels. › Structural unit is the osteon or Haversian system.

5  Spongy Bone › Consists of trabeculae. › No osteons are present.

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7  Diaphysis- shaft of the long bone. Consists of a collar of compact bone surrounding a medullary cavity.  Epiphyses- ends  Epiphyseal Line- remainder of the growth plate. (cartilage)  Endosteum- thin membrane lining the medullary cavity. Contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

8 Red marrow is found in long bones and flat bones. This is the area where blood cell production takes place.

9  Some illnesses can only be cured with a bone marrow transplant.  What do you think you know about this process?

10  Remodeling › Coordinated by packets of osteoblasts and osteoclasts called remodeling units. › In healthy adults, bone mass remains constant. › Controled by 2 loops  1. mechanical and gravitational forces  2. negative feedback hormonal mechanism.  blood calcium release of PTH release of Ca from bone by osteoclasts.

11 Types of fractures. Phases of fracture healing.

12  Osteogenesis and ossification › Fetal skeleton is mostly hyaline cartilage. › Gradually replaced by bone and hardened. › Flat and irregular bones are formed by intramembranous ossification. › Long and short bones are formed by endochondral ossification.

13  Longitudinal › Growth at the epiphyseal plate by mitosis. › Grow in length.  Appositional › Increases bone thickness. *Growth hormone released during infancy and childhood

14  Osteoporosis › Reduced by mass due to increased bone reabsorption.  Osteomalacia/ Rickets › Bones do not have enough calcium, making them soft. › Caused by Vit. D deficiency.  Paget’s Disease › Excessive and abnormal bone formation.

15 Flat long Short irregular

16  Two types of bone markings: › Projections (aka processes) that grow out from the bone › Depressions (cavities) that indent the bone

17  Condyle : Rounded articular projection  Head : bony expansion on a narrow neck  Facet : smooth, nearly flat articular surface head Facet

18  Ramus: Armlike bar of bone

19 Crest: Narrow ridge of bone (Line: smaller than a crest) Epicondyle: Raised area on or above a condyle

20 Tubercle: Small rounded projection Tuberosity: large rounded or roughened projection Trochanter: very large, blunt projection (only on femur)

21 Spine: Sharp, pointed projection Ex: sharp points on the throacic vertebrae.

22  Allow blood vessels or nerves to pass through. › Meatus: (me - A- tus) Canal or tube › Sulcus, Groove or Furrow: a shallow depression

23 Sinus: Cavity within a bone; filled with air and lined with mucous membranes Foramen: Round or oval opening Foramen Magnum

24 Fossa: shallow basin Fissure: narrow, slit-like opening

25 Projections 1) Condyle 2) Head 3) Facet 4) Ramus 5) Crest 6) Epicondyle 7) Tubercle 8) Tuberosity 9) Trochanter 10) Spine Depressions 1) Meatus 2) Fossa 3) Fissure 4) Sinus 5) Sulcus or Groove or Furrow

26  Axial: skull, vertebral column and bony thorax.  Appendicular: hang from 2 yokelike, bony girdles anchored to axial skeleton.

27 The Skull  Two sets of bones  Cranium  Facial bones  Bones are joined by sutures  Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint

28 The Skull

29 Bones of the Skull Figure 5.11

30 Human Skull, Superior View Figure 5.8

31 Human Skull, Inferior View Figure 5.9

32 The Fetal Skull Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  The fetal skull is large compared to the infants total body length Figure 5.13

33 The Fetal Skull Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Fontanelles – fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones  Allow the brain to grow  Convert to bone within 24 months after birth Figure 5.13

34 The Hyoid Bone Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  The only bone that does not articulate with another bone  Serves as a moveable base for the tongue Figure 5.12

35 The Vertebral Column Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs  The spine has a normal curvature  Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location Figure 5.14

36 Structure of a Typical Vertebrae Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.16

37  The spinal column contains 33 bones termed vertebrae. The spine has five regions.  Region # of Vertebrae Body Area Abbreviation Cervical 7Neck C1 - C7 Thoracic 12Chest T1 - T12 Lumbar 5 or 6Low Back L1 - L5 Sacrum 5 (fused)Pelvis S1 - S5 Coccyx 3Tailbone None

38  Atlas (C1) › first cervical vertebra, C1. › supports the skull. › It looks different than other vertebrae. The Atlas is a ring- shaped bone.  Axis (C2) › second cervical vertebra, C2. › It looks like a dull tooth and sticks upward into the ring of the Atlas. The dens or tooth extends up from the C2 and joins with the inside of the C1 ring. **The Atlas and Axis allow the head to turn from side to side.

39 The Bony Thorax Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Forms a cage to protect major organs Figure 5.19a

40 The Bony Thorax Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Made-up of three parts  Sternum  Ribs  Thoracic vertebrae Figure 5.19a

41 The Appendicular Skeleton Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.6c

42 The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Composed of two bones  Clavicle – collarbone  Scapula – shoulder blade  These bones allow the upper limb to have exceptionally free movement

43 Bones of the Shoulder Girdle Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.20a, b

44 Bones of the Shoulder Girdle Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.20c, d

45 Bones of the Upper Limb Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  The arm is formed by a single bone  Humerus Figure 5.21a, b

46 Bones of the Upper Limb Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The forearm has two bones Ulna Radius Figure 5.21c

47 Bones of the Upper Limb Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  The hand  Carpals – wrist  Metacarpals – palm  Phalanges – fingers Figure 5.22

48 Bones of the Pelvic Girdle Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Hip bones  Composed of three pair of fused bones  Ilium  Ischium  Pubic bone  The total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis  Protects several organs  Reproductive organs  Urinary bladder  Part of the large intestine

49 The Pelvis Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.23a

50 The Pelvis Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.23b

51 Gender Differences of the Pelvis Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.23c

52 Bones of the Lower Limbs Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  The thigh has one bone  Femur – thigh bone Figure 5.35a, b

53 Bones of the Lower Limbs Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  The leg has two bones  Tibia  Fibula Figure 5.35c

54 Bones of the Lower Limbs Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  The foot  Tarsus – ankle  Metatarsals – sole  Phalanges – toes Figure 5.25

55 Arches of the Foot Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Bones of the foot are arranged to form three strong arches  Two longitudinal  One transverse Figure 5.26

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57 Joints Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Functions  Hold bones together  Allow for mobility  Ways joints are classified  Functionally  Structurally

58 Functional Classification of Joints Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Synarthroses – immovable joints  Amphiarthroses – slightly moveable joints  Diarthroses – freely moveable joints

59 Structural Classification of Joints Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Fibrous joints  Generally immovable  Cartilaginous joints  Immovable or slightly moveable  Synovial joints  Freely moveable

60 Fibrous Joints Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Bones united by fibrous tissue  Examples  Sutures  Syndesmoses  Allows more movement than sutures  Example: distal end of tibia and fibula Figure 5.27d, e

61 Cartilaginous Joints Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Bones connected by cartilage  Examples  Pubic symphysis  Intervertebral joints Figure 5.27b, c

62 Synovial Joints Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Articulating bones are separated by a joint cavity  Synovial fluid is found in the joint cavity Figure 5.27f–h

63 Features of Synovial Joints Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) covers the ends of bones  Joint surfaces are enclosed by a fibrous articular capsule  Have a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid  Ligaments reinforce the joint

64 Inflammatory Conditions Associated with Joints Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Bursitis – inflammation of a bursa usually caused by a blow or friction  Tendonitis – inflammation of tendon sheaths  Arthritis – inflammatory or degenerative diseases of joints  Over 100 different types  The most widespread crippling disease in the United States

65 Clinical Forms of Arthritis Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Osteoarthritis  Most common chronic arthritis  Probably related to normal aging processes  Rheumatoid arthritis  An autoimmune disease – the immune system attacks the joints  Symptoms begin with bilateral inflammation of certain joints  Often leads to deformities

66 Clinical Forms of Arthritis Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Gouty Arthritis  Inflammation of joints is caused by a deposition of urate crystals from the blood  Can usually be controlled with diet


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