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Bones and the Skeleton Osseus tissues.

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Presentation on theme: "Bones and the Skeleton Osseus tissues."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bones and the Skeleton Osseus tissues

2 Function Support Protection Movement Storage Blood Cell Formation
Allows us to stand erect. Protection Ribs protect the heart and lungs. Movement Serve as attachment for skeletal muscles Storage Mineral, including calcium Blood Cell Formation hematopoiesis

3 Tissue Types Compact (dense) bone Spongy (cancellous) bone
Looks smooth and homogeneous Spongy (cancellous) bone Composed of small needlelike or flat pieces called trabeculae. Has a lot of open space.

4 Structure, microscopic
Compact bone: Filled with canals and passages for nerves and vessels. Structural unit is the osteon or Haversian system.

5 Structure, microscopic
Spongy Bone Consists of trabeculae. No osteons are present.

6 Structure

7 Structure, Cont. Diaphysis- shaft of the long bone. Consists of a collar of compact bone surrounding a medullary cavity. Epiphyses- ends Epiphyseal Line- remainder of the growth plate. (cartilage) Endosteum- thin membrane lining the medullary cavity. Contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

8 Hematopoiesis Red marrow is found in long bones and flat bones. This is the area where blood cell production takes place.

9 Bone Marrow Donation Some illnesses can only be cured with a bone marrow transplant. What do you think you know about this process?

10 Bone Homeostasis Remodeling
Coordinated by packets of osteoblasts and osteoclasts called remodeling units. In healthy adults, bone mass remains constant. Controled by 2 loops 1. mechanical and gravitational forces 2. negative feedback hormonal mechanism. blood calcium release of PTH release of Ca from bone by osteoclasts.

11 Phases of fracture healing.
Homeostasis: repair Types of fractures. Phases of fracture healing.

12 Bone Developement Osteogenesis and ossification
Fetal skeleton is mostly hyaline cartilage. Gradually replaced by bone and hardened. Flat and irregular bones are formed by intramembranous ossification. Long and short bones are formed by endochondral ossification.

13 Bone Growth Longitudinal Appositional
Growth at the epiphyseal plate by mitosis. Grow in length. Appositional Increases bone thickness. *Growth hormone released during infancy and childhood

14 Homeostatic Imbalances
Osteoporosis Reduced by mass due to increased bone reabsorption. Osteomalacia/ Rickets Bones do not have enough calcium, making them soft. Caused by Vit. D deficiency. Paget’s Disease Excessive and abnormal bone formation.

15 Classification of bones by shape:
Flat long Short irregular

16 Bone Markings: every bump and grove has a name and purpose.
Two types of bone markings: Projections (aka processes) that grow out from the bone Depressions (cavities) that indent the bone

17 Joint Projections Condyle: Rounded articular projection
Head: bony expansion on a narrow neck Facet: smooth, nearly flat articular surface head Facet

18 Joint Projections Ramus: Armlike bar of bone

19 Projections for ligament/ tendon attachment.
Crest: Narrow ridge of bone (Line: smaller than a crest) Epicondyle: Raised area on or above a condyle

20 Tubercle: Small rounded projection
Tuberosity: large rounded or roughened projection Trochanter: very large, blunt projection (only on femur)

21 Spine: Sharp, pointed projection
Ex: sharp points on the throacic vertebrae.

22 Depressions Allow blood vessels or nerves to pass through.
Meatus: (me - A- tus) Canal or tube Sulcus, Groove or Furrow: a shallow depression

23 Depressions Sinus: Cavity within a bone; filled with air and lined with mucous membranes Foramen: Round or oval opening Foramen Magnum

24 Depressions Fossa: shallow basin Fissure: narrow, slit-like opening

25 Review of markings: Projections Condyle Head Facet Ramus Crest
Epicondyle Tubercle Tuberosity Trochanter Spine Depressions Meatus Fossa Fissure Sinus Sulcus or Groove or Furrow

26 The Skeleton Axial: skull, vertebral column and bony thorax.
Appendicular: hang from 2 yokelike, bony girdles anchored to axial skeleton.

27 The Skull Two sets of bones Bones are joined by sutures
Cranium Facial bones Bones are joined by sutures Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint

28 The Skull

29 Bones of the Skull Figure 5.11

30 Human Skull, Superior View
Figure 5.8

31 Human Skull, Inferior View
Figure 5.9

32 The Fetal Skull The fetal skull is large compared to the infants total body length Figure 5.13 Slide 5.27a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

33 The Fetal Skull Fontanelles – fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones Allow the brain to grow Convert to bone within 24 months after birth Figure 5.13 Slide 5.27b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

34 The Hyoid Bone The only bone that does not articulate with another bone Serves as a moveable base for the tongue Figure 5.12 Slide 5.26 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

35 The Vertebral Column Vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs
The spine has a normal curvature Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location Figure 5.14 Slide 5.28 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

36 Structure of a Typical Vertebrae
Figure 5.16 Slide 5.29 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

37 The spinal column contains 33 bones termed vertebrae. The
spine has five regions. Region # of Vertebrae Body Area Abbreviation Cervical Neck C1 - C7 Thoracic Chest T1 - T12 Lumbar or 6 Low Back L1 - L5 Sacrum (fused) Pelvis S1 - S5 Coccyx Tailbone None

38 The Atlas and the Axis Atlas (C1) Axis (C2)
first cervical vertebra, C1. supports the skull. It looks different than other vertebrae. The Atlas is a ring-shaped bone. Axis (C2) second cervical vertebra, C2. It looks like a dull tooth and sticks upward into the ring of the Atlas. The dens or tooth extends up from the C2 and joins with the inside of the C1 ring. **The Atlas and Axis allow the head to turn from side to side.

39 The Bony Thorax Forms a cage to protect major organs Figure 5.19a
Slide 5.31a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

40 The Bony Thorax Made-up of three parts Sternum Ribs Thoracic vertebrae
Figure 5.19a Slide 5.31b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

41 The Appendicular Skeleton
Figure 5.6c Slide 5.32b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

42 The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle
Composed of two bones Clavicle – collarbone Scapula – shoulder blade These bones allow the upper limb to have exceptionally free movement Slide 5.33 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

43 Bones of the Shoulder Girdle
Figure 5.20a, b Slide 5.34a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

44 Bones of the Shoulder Girdle
Figure 5.20c, d Slide 5.34b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

45 Bones of the Upper Limb The arm is formed by a single bone Humerus
Figure 5.21a, b Slide 5.35a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

46 Bones of the Upper Limb The forearm has two bones Ulna Radius
Figure 5.21c Slide 5.35b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

47 Bones of the Upper Limb The hand Carpals – wrist Metacarpals – palm
Phalanges – fingers Figure 5.22 Slide 5.36 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

48 Bones of the Pelvic Girdle
Hip bones Composed of three pair of fused bones Ilium Ischium Pubic bone The total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis Protects several organs Reproductive organs Urinary bladder Part of the large intestine Slide 5.37 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

49 The Pelvis Figure 5.23a Slide 5.38a
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

50 The Pelvis Figure 5.23b Slide 5.38b
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

51 Gender Differences of the Pelvis
Figure 5.23c Slide 5.39 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

52 Bones of the Lower Limbs
The thigh has one bone Femur – thigh bone Figure 5.35a, b Slide 5.40a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

53 Bones of the Lower Limbs
The leg has two bones Tibia Fibula Figure 5.35c Slide 5.40b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

54 Bones of the Lower Limbs
The foot Tarsus – ankle Metatarsals – sole Phalanges – toes Figure 5.25 Slide 5.41 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

55 Arches of the Foot Bones of the foot are arranged to form three strong arches Two longitudinal One transverse Figure 5.26 Slide 5.42 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

56 Joints

57 Joints Functions Ways joints are classified Hold bones together
Allow for mobility Ways joints are classified Functionally Structurally Slide 5.43 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

58 Functional Classification of Joints
Synarthroses – immovable joints Amphiarthroses – slightly moveable joints Diarthroses – freely moveable joints Slide 5.44 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

59 Structural Classification of Joints
Fibrous joints Generally immovable Cartilaginous joints Immovable or slightly moveable Synovial joints Freely moveable Slide 5.45 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

60 Fibrous Joints Bones united by fibrous tissue Examples Sutures
Syndesmoses Allows more movement than sutures Example: distal end of tibia and fibula Figure 5.27d, e Slide 5.46 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

61 Cartilaginous Joints Bones connected by cartilage Examples
Pubic symphysis Intervertebral joints Figure 5.27b, c Slide 5.47 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

62 Synovial Joints Articulating bones are separated by a joint cavity
Synovial fluid is found in the joint cavity Figure 5.27f–h Slide 5.48 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

63 Features of Synovial Joints
Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) covers the ends of bones Joint surfaces are enclosed by a fibrous articular capsule Have a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid Ligaments reinforce the joint Slide 5.49 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

64 Inflammatory Conditions Associated with Joints
Bursitis – inflammation of a bursa usually caused by a blow or friction Tendonitis – inflammation of tendon sheaths Arthritis – inflammatory or degenerative diseases of joints Over 100 different types The most widespread crippling disease in the United States Slide 5.53 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

65 Clinical Forms of Arthritis
Osteoarthritis Most common chronic arthritis Probably related to normal aging processes Rheumatoid arthritis An autoimmune disease – the immune system attacks the joints Symptoms begin with bilateral inflammation of certain joints Often leads to deformities Slide 5.54a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

66 Clinical Forms of Arthritis
Gouty Arthritis Inflammation of joints is caused by a deposition of urate crystals from the blood Can usually be controlled with diet Slide 5.54b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings


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