2 Function Support Protection Movement Storage Blood Cell Formation Allows us to stand erect.ProtectionRibs protect the heart and lungs.MovementServe as attachment for skeletal musclesStorageMineral, including calciumBlood Cell Formationhematopoiesis
3 Tissue Types Compact (dense) bone Spongy (cancellous) bone Looks smooth and homogeneousSpongy (cancellous) boneComposed of small needlelike or flat pieces called trabeculae.Has a lot of open space.
4 Structure, microscopic Compact bone:Filled with canals and passages for nerves and vessels.Structural unit is the osteon or Haversian system.
5 Structure, microscopic Spongy BoneConsists of trabeculae.No osteons are present.
7 Structure, Cont.Diaphysis- shaft of the long bone. Consists of a collar of compact bone surrounding a medullary cavity.Epiphyses- endsEpiphyseal Line- remainder of the growth plate. (cartilage)Endosteum- thin membrane lining the medullary cavity. Contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
8 HematopoiesisRed marrow is found in long bones and flat bones. This is the area where blood cell production takes place.
9 Bone Marrow DonationSome illnesses can only be cured with a bone marrow transplant.What do you think you know about this process?
10 Bone Homeostasis Remodeling Coordinated by packets of osteoblasts and osteoclasts called remodeling units.In healthy adults, bone mass remains constant.Controled by 2 loops1. mechanical and gravitational forces2. negative feedback hormonal mechanism.blood calcium release of PTH release of Ca from bone by osteoclasts.
11 Phases of fracture healing. Homeostasis: repairTypes of fractures.Phases of fracture healing.
12 Bone Developement Osteogenesis and ossification Fetal skeleton is mostly hyaline cartilage.Gradually replaced by bone and hardened.Flat and irregular bones are formed by intramembranous ossification.Long and short bones are formed by endochondral ossification.
13 Bone Growth Longitudinal Appositional Growth at the epiphyseal plate by mitosis.Grow in length.AppositionalIncreases bone thickness.*Growth hormone released during infancy and childhood
14 Homeostatic Imbalances OsteoporosisReduced by mass due to increased bone reabsorption.Osteomalacia/ RicketsBones do not have enough calcium, making them soft.Caused by Vit. D deficiency.Paget’s DiseaseExcessive and abnormal bone formation.
15 Classification of bones by shape: FlatlongShortirregular
16 Bone Markings: every bump and grove has a name and purpose. Two types of bone markings:Projections (aka processes) that grow out from the boneDepressions (cavities) that indent the bone
17 Joint Projections Condyle: Rounded articular projection Head: bony expansion on a narrow neckFacet: smooth, nearly flat articular surfaceheadFacet
37 The spinal column contains 33 bones termed vertebrae. The spine has five regions.Region # of Vertebrae Body Area AbbreviationCervical Neck C1 - C7Thoracic Chest T1 - T12Lumbar or 6 Low Back L1 - L5Sacrum (fused) Pelvis S1 - S5Coccyx Tailbone None
38 The Atlas and the Axis Atlas (C1) Axis (C2) first cervical vertebra, C1.supports the skull.It looks different than other vertebrae. The Atlas is a ring-shaped bone.Axis (C2)second cervical vertebra, C2.It looks like a dull tooth and sticks upward into the ring of the Atlas. The dens or tooth extends up from the C2 and joins with the inside of the C1 ring.**The Atlas and Axis allow the head to turn from side to side.