Presentation on theme: "Slackers Advanced Topics Pathology Fact Stack Mike Ori."— Presentation transcript:
Slackers Advanced Topics Pathology Fact Stack Mike Ori
Disclaimer These represent my understanding of the subject and have not been vetted or reviewed by faculty. Use at your own peril. I can’t type so below are common missing letters you may need to supply e r l I didn’t use greek letters because they are a pain to cut and paste in.
What are the three most important properties of a tumor that affect its prognosis
Very similar in concept to reyes disease except that the fetus is the source of the toxic insult. Maternal hydroxylacyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency cannot metabolize fetal hydroxylacyl metabolite. Massive microvesicular steatohepatitis
Describe the pattern of hepatocyte damage that occurs with toxic drug exposure
Damage can be periportal to centrilobular depending on the agent and the enzymes expressed within the region Acetaminophen is classically centrilobular necrosis
Describe the pattern of hepatocyte damage from common substances
What are the common locations and age of presentation of the soft tissue sarcomas
Age Liposarcoma40+Retroperitoneum Deep tissues of the thigh RhabdomyosarcomaChildrenHead and neck Urogenital Deep soft tissues (adults) Synovial sarcomaAdults < 50 Lower extremity typically the knee Malignant fibrous histiocytoma 40+Lower extremity Angiosarcoma FibrosarcomaDeep soft tissues of extremities
Identify the histology of the soft tissue sarcomas
LiposarcomaFat in cells Myxoid variant = gelatinous Round cell variant similar to lymphoma and ewing RhabdomyosarcomaEmbryonal – round to oval cells suggestive of muscle Botryoid – small dark cells (usually in urogenital tract) Alveolar – dark cells arranged around fibrous trabeculae Pleomorphic – large, bizarre cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm Synovial sarcomaGlandular epithelial cells mixed with spindle cells that may express cytokeratin Malignant fibrous histiocytoma Mixed spindle cells and polygonal cells Angiosarcoma FibrosarcomaCells arranged with nuclei parallel to each other in herringbone pattern
What are the gene transformations in Ewing, liposarcoma, and synovial sarcoma?
What are the important features for grading sarcomas
Degree of differentiation Cellularity Mitotic activity Pleomorphism Extent of necrosis
Differentiate wegener, goodpastures, and microscopic poly arteritis
All are vasculidities that can affect small vessels WegenerGoodpastureMicroscopic GranulomaYesNo Antibodiesc-ANCAAnti-GBMp-ANCA Affected areaKidney Lungs Upper respiratory tract Kidney lower respiratory tract Skin Others?
If vasculitis is suspected, why must a relatively long segment of affected vessel be biopsied?
Vasculitis often skips segments within an affected vessels so a short biopsy may not contain diagnostic information.