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© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides Prepared by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College C H A P T E R 3 Cells.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides Prepared by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College C H A P T E R 3 Cells."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides Prepared by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College C H A P T E R 3 Cells and Tissues

2 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Concepts of the Cell Theory A cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms. The activity of an organism depends on the collective activities of its cells.

3 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Body Tissues Tissues are groups of cells with similar structure and function Four primary types 1. Epithelial tissue (epithelium) 2. Connective tissue 3. Muscle tissue 4. Nervous tissue

4 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Epithelial Tissues Locations Body coverings Body linings Glandular tissue Functions Protection Absorption Filtration Secretion

5 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Epithelium Characteristics Cells fit closely together and often form sheets Polarity - the apical surface is the free surface of the tissue and the lower surface rests on a basement membrane Avascular (no blood supply) Regenerate easily if well nourished

6 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Classification of Epithelia Number of cell layers Simple—one layer Stratified—more than one layer

7 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Apical surface Basal surface Simple Apical surface Basal surface Stratified (a) Classification based on number of cell layers Figure 3.17a

8 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Classification of Epithelia Shape of cells Squamous flattened Cuboidal cube-shaped Columnar column-like

9 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.17b

10 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Simple Epithelia Simple squamous Single layer of flat cells Location - usually forms membranes Lines body cavities Lines lungs and capillaries Functions in diffusion, filtration, or secretion in membranes

11 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.18a Nucleus of squamous epithelial cell Basement membrane (a) Diagram: Simple squamous Photomicrograph: Simple squamous epithelium forming part of the alveolar (air sac) walls (185×). Nuclei of squamous epithelial cells Air sacs of lungs

12 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Simple Epithelia Simple cuboidal Single layer of cube-like cells Locations Common in glands and their ducts Forms walls of kidney tubules Covers the ovaries Functions in secretion and absorption; ciliated types propel mucus or reproductive cells

13 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.18b (b) Diagram: Simple cuboidal Nucleus of simple cuboidal epithelial cell Photomicrograph: Simple cuboidal epithelium in kidney tubules (250 × ). Basement membrane Connective tissue Basement membrane Simple cuboidal epithelial cells

14 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Simple Epithelia Simple columnar Single layer of tall cells Often includes mucus-producing goblet cells Location - lines digestive tract Functions in secretion and absorption; ciliated types propel mucus or reproductive cells

15 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.18c Nucleus of simple columnar epithelial cell Connective tissue Photomicrograph: Simple columnar epithelium of the small intestine (430×). Basement membrane (c) Diagram: Simple columnar Basement membrane Goblet cell Simple columnar epithelial cell

16 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Simple Epithelia Pseudostratified columnar Single layer, but some cells are shorter than others Often looks like a double layer of cells but all cells rest on the basement membrane Location - respiratory tract, where it is ciliated Functions in absorption or secretion

17 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.18d Pseudo- stratified epithelial layer Basement membrane (d) Diagram: Pseudostratified (ciliated) columnar Photomicrograph: Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium lining the human trachea (430×). Pseudo- stratified epithelial layer Basement membrane Connective tissue Cilia

18 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Stratified Epithelia Stratified squamous Cells at the apical surface are flattened Functions as a protective covering where abrasion is common Locations - lining of the: Skin Mouth Esophagus

19 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.18e Stratified squamous epithelium Basement membrane (e) Diagram: Stratified squamous Photomicrograph: Stratified squamous epithelium lining of the esophagus (140×). Connective tissue Stratified squamous epithelium Nuclei Basement membrane

20 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Stratified Epithelia Stratified cuboidal and columnar Rare in human body Found mainly in ducts of large glands

21 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Stratified Epithelia Transitional epithelium Composed of modified stratified squamous epithelium Shape of cells depends upon the amount of stretching Functions in stretching and the ability to return to normal shape Location - lines organs of the urinary system

22 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.18f Transi- tional epithelium Basement membrane Photomicrograph: Transitional epithelium lining of the bladder, relaxed state (215×); surface rounded cells flatten and elongate when the bladder fills with urine. (f) Diagram: Transitional Connective tissue Transitional epithelium Basement membrane

23 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Connective Tissue Found everywhere in the body The most abundant and widely distributed tissue Functions Binds body tissues together (epithelial to muscle) Supports the body Provides protection

24 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Connective Tissue Characteristics Variable blood supply Some types are well vascularized Some have a poor blood supply or are avascular All connective tissue has Extracellular matrix Non-living material that surrounds living cells

25 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Extracellular Matrix Two main elements Ground substance — mostly water along with adhesion proteins and polysaccharide molecules Fibers produced by the cells Collagen (white) fibers Elastic (yellow) fibers Reticular fibers

26 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Connective Tissue Types Bone Cartilage Dense Loose Blood

27 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Bone (osseous tissue) Composition Bone cells in lacunae (cavities) Hard matrix of calcium salts Large numbers of collagen fibers Functions to protect and support the body and make blood cells.

28 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.19a Bone cells in lacunae (a) Diagram: Bone Photomicrograph: Cross-sectional view of ground bone (300×). Lamella Lacunae Central canal

29 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Cartilage Hyaline cartilage Most common type Composition: Abundant collagen fibers Rubbery matrix Locations: Larynx Articular joints Functions - a more flexible skeletal element than bone; cushions joints

30 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.19b Chondrocyte (Cartilage cell) Lacunae (b) Diagram: Hyaline cartilage Photomicrograph: Hyaline cartilage from the trachea (500×). Matrix Chondrocyte in lacuna

31 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Cartilage Elastic cartilage Provides elasticity Location Supports the external ear Fibrocartilage Highly compressible Location Forms cushion-like discs between vertebrae

32 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.19c Chondro- cites in lacunae Collagen fibers (c) Diagram: Fibrocartilage Photomicrograph: Fibrocartilage of an intervertebral disc (110×). Collagen fiber Chondrocytes in lacunae

33 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Dense connective tissue Dense fibrous tissue Main matrix element is collagen fiber Fibroblasts are cells that make fibers Locations Tendons—attach skeletal muscle to bone Ligaments—attach bone to bone at joints Dermis—lower layers of the skin

34 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.19d Ligament Tendon Collagen fibers Nuclei of fibroblasts (d) Diagram: Dense fibrous Photomicrograph: Dense fibrous connective tissue from a tendon (500×). Nuclei of fibroblasts Collagen fibers

35 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Loose connective tissue types Areolar tissue Most widely distributed connective tissue Soft, pliable tissue like “cobwebs” Functions as a packing tissue Contains all fiber types Can soak up excess fluid (causes edema)

36 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.19e Mucosa epithelium Lamina propria Fibers of matrix Nuclei of fibroblasts (e) Diagram: Areolar Photomicrograph: Areolar connective tissue, a soft packaging tissue of the body (300×). Fibroblast nuclei Collagen fibers Elastic fibers

37 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Loose connective tissue types Adipose tissue Matrix is an areolar tissue in which fat globules predominate Many cells contain large lipid deposits Functions Insulates the body Protects some organs Serves as a site of fuel storage

38 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.19f Nuclei of fat cells Vacuole containing fat droplet (f) Diagram: Adipose Photomicrograph: Adipose tissue from the subcutaneous layer beneath the skin (430×). Vacuole containing fat droplet Nuclei of fat cells

39 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Loose connective tissue types Reticular connective tissue Delicate network of interwoven fibers Locations Forms stroma (internal supporting network) of lymphoid organs Lymph nodes Spleen Bone marrow

40 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.19g Spleen Reticular cell Reticular fibers Blood cell (g) Diagram: Reticular Photomicrograph: Dark-staining network of reticular connective tissue (430×). White blood cell (lymphocyte) Reticular fibers

41 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Blood Blood (vascular tissue) Blood cells surrounded by fluid matrix called blood plasma Fibers are visible during clotting Functions as the transport vehicle for materials

42 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.19h Neutrophil (white blood cell) Red blood cells Monocyte (white blood cell) Photomicrograph: Smear of human blood (1300×)(h) Diagram: Blood White blood cell Red blood cells Blood cells in capillary

43 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscle Tissue Function is to produce movement and heat Three types Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle

44 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscle Tissue Types Skeletal muscle Under voluntary control Contracts to pull on bones or skin Produces gross body movements or facial expressions Characteristics Striated (striped) Multinucleate (more than one nucleus) Long, cylindrical cells

45 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.20a Nuclei Part of muscle fiber (a) Diagram: Skeletal musclePhotomicrograph: Skeletal muscle (approx. 300×).

46 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscle Tissue Types Cardiac muscle Under involuntary control Found only in the heart Function is to pump blood Characteristics Striated One nucleus per cell Cells are attached to other cardiac muscle cells at intercalated disks

47 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.20b Intercalated discs Nucleus (b) Diagram: Cardiac musclePhotomicrograph: Cardiac muscle (430×).

48 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Muscle Tissue Types Smooth muscle Under involuntary control Found in walls of hollow organs such as stomach, uterus, and blood vessels Characteristics No striations One nucleus per cell Spindle-shaped cells (tapered ends)

49 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.20c Smooth muscle cell Nuclei (c) Diagram: Smooth musclePhotomicrograph: Sheet of smooth muscle (approx. 300×).

50 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Nervous Tissue Composed of neurons and neuron support cells (neuroglia) Neurons send impulses to other areas of the body Support cells insulate, protect, and support neurons Two major functional characteristics: irritability and conductivity

51 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.21 Brain Spinal cord Nuclei of supporting cells Cell body of neuron Neuron processes Diagram: Nervous tissue Photomicrograph: Neurons (150×) Nuclei of supporting cells Cell body of neuron Neuron processes

52 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Tissue Repair (Wound Healing) Regeneration Replacement of destroyed tissue by the same kind of cells Fibrosis Repair by dense (fibrous) connective tissue (scar tissue) Type of repair depends on: Type of tissue damaged Severity of the injury

53 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Events in Tissue Repair 1. Inflammation Capillaries become very permeable Clotting proteins migrate into the area from the blood stream A clot walls off the injured area 2. Granulation tissue forms Growth of new capillaries Rebuild collagen fibers 3. Regeneration of surface epithelium Scab detaches

54 © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Tissues that regenerate easily Epithelial tissue (skin and mucous membranes) Fibrous connective tissues and bone Tissues that regenerate poorly Skeletal muscle Tissues that are replaced largely with scar tissue (fibrosis) Cardiac muscle Nervous tissue within the brain and spinal cord Regeneration of Tissues


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