5Energy = the ability to do work Kinetic Energy (energy of motion)Potential Energy (stored energy)First Law of Thermodynamics - the law of conservation of energy (not created or destroyed)Second Law of Thermodynamics - energy cannot be changed without a loss of usable energy (heat)
6QOD Staple/tape is the graphic organizer as last QOD Today: What are the 4 shapes of proteins? Draw a small sketch to go with your explanation or each shape
7a. carbohydrate b. lipids c. protein d. nucleic acids MATCHINGa. carbohydrate b. lipids c. protein d. nucleic acids1. contains adenine and thymine 2. lactose 3. chains of amino acids 4. long term energy storage 5. cholesterol 6. chains of fatty acids and glycerol 7. plant cell walls7. Cellulose = carbohydrate
8Chemical Reaction Reactants Products Reactants: starting substances, on the left side of the arrow.Products: substances formed during the reaction, on the right side of the arrow.Baking soda + vinegarwater + CO2ReactantsProducts
9What are the reactants and products? 6CO2 + 6H2OC6H12O6ReactantsProductsH2O2H2O + O2ReactantsProducts
10Reactants --> Products Metabolic ReactionsReactants --> Products Exothermic - releases energy Endothermic = absorbs energy
11This reaction is exothermic and released heat energy. Chapter 6Chemistry in BiologyThis reaction is exothermic and released heat energy.The energy of the product is lower than the energy of the reactants.
12This reaction is endothermic and absorbed heat energy. Chapter 6Chemistry in Biology6.2 Chemical ReactionsThis reaction is endothermic and absorbed heat energy.The energy of the products is higher than the energy of the reactants.
13Metabolic Pathways & Enzymes (6-3) Enzyme - protein molecule that functions as an organic catalyst to speed reactionsSubstrate - reactants in the enzymatic reaction, this is what an enzyme attaches toActivation Energy- the energy required to cause the reaction
14activation energy: the minimum amount of energy needed for a reaction. Chemistry in BiologyEnergy of Reactionsactivation energy: the minimum amount of energy needed for a reaction.Enzymes lower the activation energy
15Properties of Enzymes: Enzymes are made of proteins.They speed up chemical reactions inside the cytoplasm.They are needed only in small amountsThey remain unchanged after each reaction and can therefore be reusedEach enzyme is specific for a substrate
16Substrates: reactants that bind to the enzyme Chapter 6Chemistry in BiologySubstrates: reactants that bind to the enzymeactive site: specific location where a substrate binds on an enzyme
17Lock and Key ModelEach enzyme acts on a specific substrate
18Induced Fit Model - substrates and enzymes fit together Induced Fit Model - substrates and enzymes fit together like a lock and key. Degradation vs Synthesis breaking down vs building
19Factors Affecting Enzymatic Speed 1. Substrate concentration 2. Temperature & pH * 3. Enzyme concentrationEnzymes can be denatured - they change shape so much that they are no longer effective. High temp or pH can cause denaturation.
20Siamese cats have an enzyme that works at lower temperatures only, causing the nose and ears to become a darker color than the rest of the body.
21Competitive Inhibition vs. Noncompetitive Inhibition (allosteric site) Enzymatic Inhibition - when a substance binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity. (Usually reversible)Competitive Inhibition vs.Noncompetitive Inhibition (allosteric site)**Both are forms of feedback inhibitionNormalInhibited:competitiveNon- competitive
25Enzyme Lab 2H2O2 ----> 2H2O + O2 Hydrogen Peroxide is broken down by the enzyme catalase within cells. Potatoes hold the enzyme catalase, which will speed up the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide
26Proteins have four shapes 1. Primary Structure - sequence of amino acids that form the polypeptide chain 2. Secondary Structure - Parts of the polypeptide fold into local patterns (alpha helix or pleated sheet) 3. Tertiary Structure - the overall 3D shape (globular or fibrous) 4. Quaternary Structure - consists of two or more polypeptide chains or subunits
27Factors Affecting Enzymatic Speed 1. Substrate concentration 2. Temperature & pH * 3. Enzyme concentrationEnzymes can be denatured - they change shape so much that they are no longer effective. High temp or pH can cause denaturation.
28The activity of catalase can be seen by the bubbling of oxygen during the reaction Generally speaking, catalase reactions occur faster at warmer temperatures.If temperature is too hot (boiling) then the enzyme becomes denatured
29Competitive Inhibition Noncompetitive Inhibition (allosteric site) Enzymatic Inhibition - when a substance binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity. (Usually reversible)Competitive Inhibition Noncompetitive Inhibition (allosteric site)**Both are forms of feedback inhibitionNormalInhibited:competitiveNon- competitive
30Both cofactors and coenzymes help to complete the structure of a conjugated enzyme CO-ENZYME is a small organic non-protein MOLECULE that carries chemical groups between enzymes while a ex: iron, magnesium or zinc.CO-FACTOR is a non-protein CHEMICAL COMPOUND that is bound tightly to an enzyme and is required for catalysis.ex: NAD+, NADP+ and FAD+
31Virtual Labs with Enzymes McGraw Hill LabBio 114 EnzymesLab Bench Enzyme Catalysis
32ATPRibose (sugar)release energyAdd energyADPDiphosphateEnergy stored in ATP is released by breaking the bond between the 2nd and 3rd phosphates.
33ATPEnergy stored in ATP is released by breaking the bond between the 2nd and 3rd phosphates.2 Phosphate groupsPADPCopyright Pearson Prentice Hall
34ATP - the energy currency of cells (adenosine triphosphate) Functions: 1. CHEMICAL WORK - Supplies energy needed to make macromolecules that make up the cell (and organism) 2. TRANSPORT WORK - Supplies energy needed to pump substances across the cell membrane 3. MECHANICAL WORK - supplies energy needed to make muscles contract and other cellular parts to move (flagella)
35How do cells make ATP? Cellular respiration Photosynthesis Electron transport chainChemiosmosis= production of ATP due to hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane