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I. General Information about the Skeletal System A. ______________________- study of movement of the human body. Kinesiology.

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Presentation on theme: "I. General Information about the Skeletal System A. ______________________- study of movement of the human body. Kinesiology."— Presentation transcript:

1 I. General Information about the Skeletal System A. ______________________- study of movement of the human body. Kinesiology

2 Human Skeleton (206 bones TOTAL) Skull (22 bones) Hyoid (1 bone) Auditory ossicles (6 bones) Vertebral column (26 bones) Thorax (25 bones) = 80 bones total AXIAL Skeleton B. Division of the Skeletal System

3 Human Skeleton (206 bones TOTAL) Clavicle (2 bones) Scapula (2 bones) Upper limbs (60 bones) Pelvic Girdle (2 bones) Lower limbs (60 bones) = 126 bones Appendicular Skeleton

4 Blue = axial Yellow = appendicular

5 C. Bone and Surface Markings 1. Depressions & Openings: a. ___________________- opening for blood vessels, nerves and/or ligaments. example – b. _____________________- shallow depression in or on the bone. example - Foramen Opening in pelvis bone Fossa Coronoid fossa of the humerus

6 2. Processes that form joints a. _________________- large rounded prominence that forms joints. example – b. _________________- rounded project that is supported on a thinner “neck” and forms a joint. example - condyle Knobs on lower femur at knee head Top of the femur (“ball”)

7 3. Processes that tendons, ligaments & other tissue connect to: a. _____________________ - large, blunt projection only on the femur (not the “ball” part) b. _____________________ - prominent border or ridge Example - Trochanter Crest Illiac crest at top of hip bone

8 c. ____________________- large, rounded projection, usually with a rough surface. Example – d. __________________________________- a sharp, slender project. Example - Turbocity Deltoid turbocity of the humerus Spine or Spinous process The part of the vertebrae that you can palpate on someone’s back

9 4. ______________________- to make contact with. (ex- me humerus articulates with the radius) articulate

10 D. General differences between male & female skeletons 1. Male bones are _______________ and_____________________ than female bones. 2. Male points of _____________________ are larger. larger heavier Muscle attachment

11 II. Upper Appendage A. Definition of Upper Appendage: _______ __________________________________ B. Pectoral Girdle – the _______________ & ________________ that anchors the limb to the axial skeleton. Pectoral Girdle + Upper Limb clavicle scapula

12 1. ___________________ (collar bone) a. it is the ___________________ fractured bone due to one outstretching their arms when s/he falls. Clavicle Most commonly

13 CLAVICLE _________ end of the clavicle LATERAL MEDIAL

14 Scapular spine Infraspinous process 2. ________________________ (shoulder blade) scapula _________________ Used for attachment to shoulder muscles. _________________ attaches to rotator cuff muscles.

15 Supraspinous process _________________ ________________ attaches to rotator cuff muscles.

16 ____________- Articulates with the __________. (This is where a “separated shoulder” occurs.) ACROMION CLAVICLE __________________ Articulates with the head of the _________________ to form a ball & socket joint. Glenoid Fossa humerus

17 _______________ Used for attachment to chest and arm muscles. Coracoid process ____________________- faces towards the ribs. Subscapular fossa

18 3. ____________________________- an injury where the joint between the lateral end of the clavicle and the acromion of the shoulder is affected (often happens with forceful trauma). Separated shoulder

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20 HEAD Anatomical neck C. ____________________- (upper arm bone) Humerus _____________ articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula. _____________ Where the humerus narrows. _____________ ____________- Attachment point for deltoid muscle. Deltoid Turberosity

21 CAPITULUM TROCHLEA ____________ (lateral side) Articulates with the radius ___________- (spool shaped) Articulates with the ulna. ______________ ___________- Articulates with the ulna when arm is bent. CORONOID FOSSA

22 Olecranon fossa _______________. Articulates with the olecranon process of the ulna.

23 Ulna ULNA D. ____________________- (lower arm bone on the little finger side)

24 Ulna – full view Styloid Process _______________ Articulates with the carpals of the wrist

25 Ulna – enlarged proximal end; lateral view _______________ where the humerus fits Trochlear notch ___________ __________ “point” of elbow Olecranon process ______________ __________- articulate with coronoid fossa of humerus CORONOID PROCESS ___________ __________ Where the radius fits. Radial Notch

26 Radius RADIUS E. ____________________- (lower arm on the thumb side)

27 _______________ Articulates with the capitulum. (allows the hand to face “palms up”) head _______________ (commonly “fall” fracture by people over 50) Styloid process

28 1. ______________________________ - the head of the radius slides past or ruptures the ligament that forms a collar around the head of the radius (most common upper limb dislocation in children). Dislocation of the radial head

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30 8 bones in the wrist F. Carpals - _______________________________ ______________________- when the nerves of this tunnel are compressed and cause numbness, tingling & weakening in the hand. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome _______________2 rows of bones that forms a tunnel for nerves & tendons to pass through. CARPALS

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32 5 bones that make up the palm of the hand METACARPALS G. Metacarpals - ___________________________ ______________________ - Each metacarpal has a base (proximal), body & a head (distal). -It is the _____________ of the metacarpal that makes _________________ when you clench your fist. head knuckles

33 14 bones of the fingers & thumb Proximal Phalanges H. Phalanges - ____________________________

34 Middle Phalanges

35 Distal Phalange

36 Pollex – no middle phalange I. Pollex - ____________________________ Specialized phalange that makes up the thumb

37 IV. _________________________- both hip bones A. Three functions of the pelvic girdle: 1. _________________ the vertebral column 2. _____________________________ of the pelvis (bladder, reproductive organs, rectum). 3. __________________________ to the axial skeleton. Pelvic Girdle supports Protects the organs Attaches lower limbs

38 B. Features of the Pelvic Girdle ______________- the two “hip” bones that are made up of the: _______________ ________________ _______ which fuse together by age 23. Coxal Illium, ischium & pubis

39 _________________- joint that joins the two coxal bones. Pubic Symphasis

40 _________________ - divides the pelvis into an upper & lower portion. Pelvic Brim

41 _________________ - joint on the posterior side where the 2 coxal bones join the sacrum. Sacroilliac joint

42 _________________ everything above the pelvic brim. It is actually considered to be part of the ______________ & only contains the bladder when it is _________ and uterus during _____________. False Pelvis abdomen full pregnancy

43 _________________ below the pelvic brim which surrounds the pelvic cavity True Pelvis

44 _______________ upper opening of the true pelvis. Pelvic Inlet

45 _______________ lower opening of the true pelvis. Pelvic Outlet

46 Anterior View C. ________________ - largest part of the coxal bone Illium Illiac crest

47 Lateral View of Coxal Bone _________________ ________ - where the sciatic nerve (longest nerve in body) passes through. Greater sciatic notch

48 Anterior View D. ________________ - lower, posterior part of coxal bone. Ischium

49 Anterior View E. ________________ - lower, anterior part of the coxal bone. Pubis

50 F. Features created by the joining of the bones of the coxal. (lateral view) ____________- socket for the head of the femur formed by the joining of all 3 coxal bones. Acetabulum

51 __________________ - largest foramen of the skeleton where nerves and vessels pass (formed by joining of ischium & pubis. Obturator Foramen

52 G. Structural differences between a male and female pelvis 1. ____________________- of the female is larger and the _________________ is oriented so that a baby can fit through. 2. The angle made by the two ischium bones is a larger _______ shape in females, and narrower _________ shape in males. Pelvic Inlet Pelvic outlet U V

53 V. __________________ (the leg) A. _________________(thigh bone) – the STRONGEST bone in the body Lower Limb Femur

54 __________________ - “ball” of the femur which articulates with the acetabulum. Head ____________ __________- projection on side of femur where muscles attach(also landmark for injections in the thigh). Greater Trochanter

55 __________________ - articulates with the patella (“knee cap”). Patellar Surface

56 __________________ - towards the inside of the leg. Articulates with the tibia. Medial Condyle ____________ __________- Towards the outside of the leg. Articulates with the tibia. Lateral Condyle

57 B. ___________________ (“knee cap”) – normally tracks(moves) up & down in a __________ between the femoral condyles. Patella groove

58 1. ___________________________- “runner’s knee” occurs when the patella tracks _________________ and causes pain. (due to running on the same side of the road that is naturally sloped). Patellofemoral Stress Syndrome laterally

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60 C. _________________(shin bone)Tibia

61 ____________ ____________- Articulates with the lateral condyle of the femur. Lateral condyle ___________ ___________- Articulates with the medial condyle of the femur. Medial condyle

62 _____________________- Forms the prominence you feel on the medial ankle bone. Medial Malleolus

63 1. ______________- pain along the tibia that results from inflammation of the tibia’s ___________________ (usually caused by over-exertion of the calf muscles) Shin splints periosteum

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65 D. ___________________- smaller bone next to the tibia in the lower leg. Fibula

66 ___________________- Forms the prominence you feel on the lateral part of the ankle surface. Lateral malleolus

67 E. The FOOT & its functions 1. ______________- 7 ankle bones of the foot ___________________- It is the only tarsal that articulates with the tibia & fibula. It initially bears the _________ of the entire body when walking. Tarsals Talus weight

68 ___________- Between the talus and cuniforms Navicular

69 ___________- 3 bones between the navicular & metatarsals. cuniforms

70 ___________- Between the calcaneous and metatarsals Cuboid

71 ___________________- (heel bone) It is the largest & strongest tarsal. _________ the weight is transferred to it from the __________ when walking. Calcaneous Half Talus

72 2. _______________________- 5 bones that are similar to the metacarpals that make up the “sole” of the foot. a. like the metacarpals, each have a __________ base, a body, and a ___________ head. metatarsals proximal distal

73 3. __________________- 14 bones similar to the fingers in the hand. phalanges Proximal phalanges

74 Middle Phalange (only 4) Distal Phalanges

75 4. ___________________- specialized phalange that lacks a ______________ phalange. Hallux middle

76 5. The four ___________ of the arches foot: a. _________________ leverage when walking b. _________________ shock (by “giving when weight is applied & “springing back” afterwards). c. ____________________ body weight over parts of the foot. d. ____________________ the weight of the body. Acronym help: ______________ (think…..the “PADS” of your feet) functions P.rovides A.bsorbs D.istributes S.upports P. A. D. S.

77 6. Three arches of the foot ________________- Runs horizontally across the foot. Formed by the navicular, cuniforms, & bases of metatarsals. Transverse arch

78 _________________________- Runs front to back of foot by the inside of the foot. Medial Longitudinal Arch

79 ______________________- Runs front to back of foot by the outside of the foot. Lateral Longitudinal Arch

80

81 7. __________________- abnormally low height of the medial longitudinal arch. Flat footed

82 VI. Joints of the Skeletal System A. __________________- point of contact between ___________, between ________________________ or between ____________________. Joint bones Cartilage & bones Teeth & bones

83 B. Divisions of Medical Studies of Joints 1. ______________________- the study of joints. 2. ______________________- study of joint disease and related conditions Arthology Rheumatology

84 C. Movement of Joints 1. Range of motion: a. in general, the _______________ the distance between the articulating bone, more _________________ the range of motion for that joint. Ex - shorter restricted Skull bones- very close together  no range of motion femur & tibia are farther apart  large range of motion

85 2. Three Factors that determine joint flexibility: a. ____________________ of the ligaments that bind the bones together. b. _____________________of articulating bones. c. _____________________tension of associated muscles and tendons. ACRONYM HELP: What’s your favorite math class at DPHS? __________________ F.lexibility S.hape T.ension F. S. T.

86 JOINTS Fibrous -Bones are held together by__________ connective tissue. -Lack a ________________ cavity -Three Types _____________ fibrous synovial suture syndesmosis gomphosis D. Classes of Joints

87 JOINTS Synovial -____________ a synovial cavitysynovial cavity -Most ___________ -Six Types ______________ contains movable planar condyloid hinge saddle pivot Ball & socket

88 JOINTS Cartilaginous -Bones are held together by ______________. -Also _________ a synovial cavity. -Two Types ______________ cartilage lacks synchondris symphasis

89 SUTURE -They are ________________ -Found where__________ unite immovable Skull bones 1. FIBROUS JOINTS

90 SYNDESMOSIS (sin-dez-M Ō -sis) - They are ________________ -Found in_____________________ Slightly movable Tibia/fibula connection & sacrum/coxal connection

91 GOMPHOSIS (gom-F Ō -sis) -They are ________________ -Found only in_________________ immovable Tooth sockets

92 PLANAR -Found in _________________ _________________ Wrist & ankles Btwn clavicle & sternum Btwn clavicle & scapula 2. SYNOVIAL JOINTS

93 CONDYLOID (KON-di-loyd) - Found in ________________Wrist and ankles

94 SADDLE - Found in ________________Thumb only

95 HINGE - Found in __________________Knee, elbow, ankle, & fingers

96 PIVOT - Found in __________________Elbow & head to say “no”

97 BALL-&- SOCKET - Found in __________________ Shoulder & hip joints

98 a. ____________________- allows the joint to move freely. Synovial cavity

99 b. specific joint structures of the knee: ______________ ______________ _____________- Ligament that extends posteriorly & laterally from the tibia to the fibula. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)

100 ______________ _____________- Found on the outside of the knee. Meniscus allow for a____________ fit between two different shaped bones. Lateral Meniscus tighter

101 ______________ _____________- Found on the inside of the knee. Medial Meniscus

102 c. Common injuries of the knee: 1. _____________________- when the anterior cruciate ligament is stretched or torn (70% of all serious knee injuries). ACL injury

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105 2. _______________________________ - when the lateral or medial meniscus is damaged. (If the damaged cartilage is not removed, it may lead to arthritis) Torn Cartilage of the knee

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108 SYNCHONDROSIS (sin-kon-DR Ō -sis) -They are ________________ -Found in _____________ of elongating bones & between the ____________ & ____________ immovable Growth plates Rib cage sternum 3. CARTILAGENOUS JOINTS

109 SYMPHASIS (sim-fi-sis) -They are ________________ -Found between the __________ bones and between ____________ Slightly movable pubis vertebrae

110 E. Common Joint Diseases & Complications 1. _______________________- an autoimmune disease in which the immune system of the body attacks its own cartilage & joint linings. It is characterized by _______________ of the synovial cavity. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) swelling

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113 2. _________________________- degenerative joint disease characterized by deterioration of ________________ cartilage. (the “wear & tear” arthritis) Osteoarthritis articular

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115 3. ________________- forcible wrenching or twisting of the ________________ of a joint. Sprain ligaments

116 4. _____________________- stretched or partially torn _________________. (often occurs when a muscle contracts suddenly & powerfully) Strain muscle


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