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I. General Information about the Skeletal System A. ______________________- study of movement of the human body. Kinesiology.

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Presentation on theme: "I. General Information about the Skeletal System A. ______________________- study of movement of the human body. Kinesiology."— Presentation transcript:

1 I. General Information about the Skeletal System A. ______________________- study of movement of the human body. Kinesiology

2 Human Skeleton (206 bones TOTAL) Skull (22 bones) Hyoid (1 bone) Auditory ossicles (6 bones) Vertebral column (26 bones) Thorax (25 bones) = 80 bones total AXIAL Skeleton B. Division of the Skeletal System

3 Human Skeleton (206 bones TOTAL) Clavicle (2 bones) Scapula (2 bones) Upper limbs (60 bones) Pelvic Girdle (2 bones) Lower limbs (60 bones) = 126 bones Appendicular Skeleton

4 Blue = axial Yellow = appendicular

5 C. Bone and Surface Markings 1. Depressions & Openings: a. ___________________- opening for blood vessels, nerves and/or ligaments. example – b. _____________________- shallow depression in or on the bone. example - Foramen Opening in pelvis bone Fossa Coronoid fossa of the humerus

6 2. Processes that form joints a. _________________- large rounded prominence that forms joints. example – b. _________________- rounded project that is supported on a thinner “neck” and forms a joint. example - condyle Knobs on lower femur at knee head Top of the femur (“ball”)

7 3. Processes that tendons, ligaments & other tissue connect to: a. _____________________ - large, blunt projection only on the femur (not the “ball” part) b. _____________________ - prominent border or ridge Example - Trochanter Crest Illiac crest at top of hip bone

8 c. ____________________- large, rounded projection, usually with a rough surface. Example – d. __________________________________- a sharp, slender project. Example - Turbocity Deltoid turbocity of the humerus Spine or Spinous process The part of the vertebrae that you can palpate on someone’s back

9 4. ______________________- to make contact with. (ex- me humerus articulates with the radius) articulate

10 D. General differences between male & female skeletons 1. Male bones are _______________ and_____________________ than female bones. 2. Male points of _____________________ are larger. larger heavier Muscle attachment

11 II. Upper Appendage A. Definition of Upper Appendage: _______ __________________________________ B. Pectoral Girdle – the _______________ & ________________ that anchors the limb to the axial skeleton. Pectoral Girdle + Upper Limb clavicle scapula

12 1. ___________________ (collar bone) a. it is the ___________________ fractured bone due to one outstretching their arms when s/he falls. Clavicle Most commonly

13 CLAVICLE _________ end of the clavicle LATERAL MEDIAL

14 Scapular spine Infraspinous process 2. ________________________ (shoulder blade) scapula _________________ Used for attachment to shoulder muscles. _________________ attaches to rotator cuff muscles.

15 Supraspinous process _________________ ________________ attaches to rotator cuff muscles.

16 ____________- Articulates with the __________. (This is where a “separated shoulder” occurs.) ACROMION CLAVICLE __________________ Articulates with the head of the _________________ to form a ball & socket joint. Glenoid Fossa humerus

17 _______________ Used for attachment to chest and arm muscles. Coracoid process ____________________- faces towards the ribs. Subscapular fossa

18 3. ____________________________- an injury where the joint between the lateral end of the clavicle and the acromion of the shoulder is affected (often happens with forceful trauma). Separated shoulder


20 HEAD Anatomical neck C. ____________________- (upper arm bone) Humerus _____________ articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula. _____________ Where the humerus narrows. _____________ ____________- Attachment point for deltoid muscle. Deltoid Turberosity

21 CAPITULUM TROCHLEA ____________ (lateral side) Articulates with the radius ___________- (spool shaped) Articulates with the ulna. ______________ ___________- Articulates with the ulna when arm is bent. CORONOID FOSSA

22 Olecranon fossa _______________. Articulates with the olecranon process of the ulna.

23 Ulna ULNA D. ____________________- (lower arm bone on the little finger side)

24 Ulna – full view Styloid Process _______________ Articulates with the carpals of the wrist

25 Ulna – enlarged proximal end; lateral view _______________ where the humerus fits Trochlear notch ___________ __________ “point” of elbow Olecranon process ______________ __________- articulate with coronoid fossa of humerus CORONOID PROCESS ___________ __________ Where the radius fits. Radial Notch

26 Radius RADIUS E. ____________________- (lower arm on the thumb side)

27 _______________ Articulates with the capitulum. (allows the hand to face “palms up”) head _______________ (commonly “fall” fracture by people over 50) Styloid process

28 1. ______________________________ - the head of the radius slides past or ruptures the ligament that forms a collar around the head of the radius (most common upper limb dislocation in children). Dislocation of the radial head


30 8 bones in the wrist F. Carpals - _______________________________ ______________________- when the nerves of this tunnel are compressed and cause numbness, tingling & weakening in the hand. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome _______________2 rows of bones that forms a tunnel for nerves & tendons to pass through. CARPALS


32 5 bones that make up the palm of the hand METACARPALS G. Metacarpals - ___________________________ ______________________ - Each metacarpal has a base (proximal), body & a head (distal). -It is the _____________ of the metacarpal that makes _________________ when you clench your fist. head knuckles

33 14 bones of the fingers & thumb Proximal Phalanges H. Phalanges - ____________________________

34 Middle Phalanges

35 Distal Phalange

36 Pollex – no middle phalange I. Pollex - ____________________________ Specialized phalange that makes up the thumb

37 IV. _________________________- both hip bones A. Three functions of the pelvic girdle: 1. _________________ the vertebral column 2. _____________________________ of the pelvis (bladder, reproductive organs, rectum). 3. __________________________ to the axial skeleton. Pelvic Girdle supports Protects the organs Attaches lower limbs

38 B. Features of the Pelvic Girdle ______________- the two “hip” bones that are made up of the: _______________ ________________ _______ which fuse together by age 23. Coxal Illium, ischium & pubis

39 _________________- joint that joins the two coxal bones. Pubic Symphasis

40 _________________ - divides the pelvis into an upper & lower portion. Pelvic Brim

41 _________________ - joint on the posterior side where the 2 coxal bones join the sacrum. Sacroilliac joint

42 _________________ everything above the pelvic brim. It is actually considered to be part of the ______________ & only contains the bladder when it is _________ and uterus during _____________. False Pelvis abdomen full pregnancy

43 _________________ below the pelvic brim which surrounds the pelvic cavity True Pelvis

44 _______________ upper opening of the true pelvis. Pelvic Inlet

45 _______________ lower opening of the true pelvis. Pelvic Outlet

46 Anterior View C. ________________ - largest part of the coxal bone Illium Illiac crest

47 Lateral View of Coxal Bone _________________ ________ - where the sciatic nerve (longest nerve in body) passes through. Greater sciatic notch

48 Anterior View D. ________________ - lower, posterior part of coxal bone. Ischium

49 Anterior View E. ________________ - lower, anterior part of the coxal bone. Pubis

50 F. Features created by the joining of the bones of the coxal. (lateral view) ____________- socket for the head of the femur formed by the joining of all 3 coxal bones. Acetabulum

51 __________________ - largest foramen of the skeleton where nerves and vessels pass (formed by joining of ischium & pubis. Obturator Foramen

52 G. Structural differences between a male and female pelvis 1. ____________________- of the female is larger and the _________________ is oriented so that a baby can fit through. 2. The angle made by the two ischium bones is a larger _______ shape in females, and narrower _________ shape in males. Pelvic Inlet Pelvic outlet U V

53 V. __________________ (the leg) A. _________________(thigh bone) – the STRONGEST bone in the body Lower Limb Femur

54 __________________ - “ball” of the femur which articulates with the acetabulum. Head ____________ __________- projection on side of femur where muscles attach(also landmark for injections in the thigh). Greater Trochanter

55 __________________ - articulates with the patella (“knee cap”). Patellar Surface

56 __________________ - towards the inside of the leg. Articulates with the tibia. Medial Condyle ____________ __________- Towards the outside of the leg. Articulates with the tibia. Lateral Condyle

57 B. ___________________ (“knee cap”) – normally tracks(moves) up & down in a __________ between the femoral condyles. Patella groove

58 1. ___________________________- “runner’s knee” occurs when the patella tracks _________________ and causes pain. (due to running on the same side of the road that is naturally sloped). Patellofemoral Stress Syndrome laterally


60 C. _________________(shin bone)Tibia

61 ____________ ____________- Articulates with the lateral condyle of the femur. Lateral condyle ___________ ___________- Articulates with the medial condyle of the femur. Medial condyle

62 _____________________- Forms the prominence you feel on the medial ankle bone. Medial Malleolus

63 1. ______________- pain along the tibia that results from inflammation of the tibia’s ___________________ (usually caused by over-exertion of the calf muscles) Shin splints periosteum


65 D. ___________________- smaller bone next to the tibia in the lower leg. Fibula

66 ___________________- Forms the prominence you feel on the lateral part of the ankle surface. Lateral malleolus

67 E. The FOOT & its functions 1. ______________- 7 ankle bones of the foot ___________________- It is the only tarsal that articulates with the tibia & fibula. It initially bears the _________ of the entire body when walking. Tarsals Talus weight

68 ___________- Between the talus and cuniforms Navicular

69 ___________- 3 bones between the navicular & metatarsals. cuniforms

70 ___________- Between the calcaneous and metatarsals Cuboid

71 ___________________- (heel bone) It is the largest & strongest tarsal. _________ the weight is transferred to it from the __________ when walking. Calcaneous Half Talus

72 2. _______________________- 5 bones that are similar to the metacarpals that make up the “sole” of the foot. a. like the metacarpals, each have a __________ base, a body, and a ___________ head. metatarsals proximal distal

73 3. __________________- 14 bones similar to the fingers in the hand. phalanges Proximal phalanges

74 Middle Phalange (only 4) Distal Phalanges

75 4. ___________________- specialized phalange that lacks a ______________ phalange. Hallux middle

76 5. The four ___________ of the arches foot: a. _________________ leverage when walking b. _________________ shock (by “giving when weight is applied & “springing back” afterwards). c. ____________________ body weight over parts of the foot. d. ____________________ the weight of the body. Acronym help: ______________ (think…..the “PADS” of your feet) functions P.rovides A.bsorbs D.istributes S.upports P. A. D. S.

77 6. Three arches of the foot ________________- Runs horizontally across the foot. Formed by the navicular, cuniforms, & bases of metatarsals. Transverse arch

78 _________________________- Runs front to back of foot by the inside of the foot. Medial Longitudinal Arch

79 ______________________- Runs front to back of foot by the outside of the foot. Lateral Longitudinal Arch


81 7. __________________- abnormally low height of the medial longitudinal arch. Flat footed

82 VI. Joints of the Skeletal System A. __________________- point of contact between ___________, between ________________________ or between ____________________. Joint bones Cartilage & bones Teeth & bones

83 B. Divisions of Medical Studies of Joints 1. ______________________- the study of joints. 2. ______________________- study of joint disease and related conditions Arthology Rheumatology

84 C. Movement of Joints 1. Range of motion: a. in general, the _______________ the distance between the articulating bone, more _________________ the range of motion for that joint. Ex - shorter restricted Skull bones- very close together  no range of motion femur & tibia are farther apart  large range of motion

85 2. Three Factors that determine joint flexibility: a. ____________________ of the ligaments that bind the bones together. b. _____________________of articulating bones. c. _____________________tension of associated muscles and tendons. ACRONYM HELP: What’s your favorite math class at DPHS? __________________ F.lexibility S.hape T.ension F. S. T.

86 JOINTS Fibrous -Bones are held together by__________ connective tissue. -Lack a ________________ cavity -Three Types _____________ fibrous synovial suture syndesmosis gomphosis D. Classes of Joints

87 JOINTS Synovial -____________ a synovial cavitysynovial cavity -Most ___________ -Six Types ______________ contains movable planar condyloid hinge saddle pivot Ball & socket

88 JOINTS Cartilaginous -Bones are held together by ______________. -Also _________ a synovial cavity. -Two Types ______________ cartilage lacks synchondris symphasis

89 SUTURE -They are ________________ -Found where__________ unite immovable Skull bones 1. FIBROUS JOINTS

90 SYNDESMOSIS (sin-dez-M Ō -sis) - They are ________________ -Found in_____________________ Slightly movable Tibia/fibula connection & sacrum/coxal connection

91 GOMPHOSIS (gom-F Ō -sis) -They are ________________ -Found only in_________________ immovable Tooth sockets

92 PLANAR -Found in _________________ _________________ Wrist & ankles Btwn clavicle & sternum Btwn clavicle & scapula 2. SYNOVIAL JOINTS

93 CONDYLOID (KON-di-loyd) - Found in ________________Wrist and ankles

94 SADDLE - Found in ________________Thumb only

95 HINGE - Found in __________________Knee, elbow, ankle, & fingers

96 PIVOT - Found in __________________Elbow & head to say “no”

97 BALL-&- SOCKET - Found in __________________ Shoulder & hip joints

98 a. ____________________- allows the joint to move freely. Synovial cavity

99 b. specific joint structures of the knee: ______________ ______________ _____________- Ligament that extends posteriorly & laterally from the tibia to the fibula. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)

100 ______________ _____________- Found on the outside of the knee. Meniscus allow for a____________ fit between two different shaped bones. Lateral Meniscus tighter

101 ______________ _____________- Found on the inside of the knee. Medial Meniscus

102 c. Common injuries of the knee: 1. _____________________- when the anterior cruciate ligament is stretched or torn (70% of all serious knee injuries). ACL injury



105 2. _______________________________ - when the lateral or medial meniscus is damaged. (If the damaged cartilage is not removed, it may lead to arthritis) Torn Cartilage of the knee



108 SYNCHONDROSIS (sin-kon-DR Ō -sis) -They are ________________ -Found in _____________ of elongating bones & between the ____________ & ____________ immovable Growth plates Rib cage sternum 3. CARTILAGENOUS JOINTS

109 SYMPHASIS (sim-fi-sis) -They are ________________ -Found between the __________ bones and between ____________ Slightly movable pubis vertebrae

110 E. Common Joint Diseases & Complications 1. _______________________- an autoimmune disease in which the immune system of the body attacks its own cartilage & joint linings. It is characterized by _______________ of the synovial cavity. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) swelling



113 2. _________________________- degenerative joint disease characterized by deterioration of ________________ cartilage. (the “wear & tear” arthritis) Osteoarthritis articular


115 3. ________________- forcible wrenching or twisting of the ________________ of a joint. Sprain ligaments

116 4. _____________________- stretched or partially torn _________________. (often occurs when a muscle contracts suddenly & powerfully) Strain muscle

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