Presentation on theme: "Sydney Roth, Lina Rivetti, Annabel Kopell The most vital asset in regulating what enters and leaves the cell is the cell membrane. Both prokaryotic and."— Presentation transcript:
Sydney Roth, Lina Rivetti, Annabel Kopell The most vital asset in regulating what enters and leaves the cell is the cell membrane. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells contain a cell membrane and the membrane functions in the same way for all. Necessary Functions: o Separates internal metabolic reactions from external surroundings o Helps excrete the cell’s waste o Responsible for the intake of substances needed for cell functions o Protective barrier against water from its environment Topic 1
The cell membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer and proteins. The phospholipids in the bilayer have hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails allowing the membrane to regulate water entry. The proteins embedded in the bilayer are either transport proteins, receptor proteins for odor, taste, and hormones, or channels to control the entry/exit of ions and other substances that cannot travel through the bilayer.
Cell membranes help organisms maintain homeostasis by controlling what substances enter/leave the cell. Passive Transport- a process by which substances can cross the cell membrane without any input of energy by the cell. Facilitated diffusion- a process used for molecules that cannot readily go through the cell membrane. They are molecules that are not soluble in lipids or are too large to pass through the membrane. Use carrier proteins. Active Transport- a process by which cells must use energy to transport substances in/out of the cell
Endocytosis- the process by which cells ingest external fluid, macromolecules, and large particles, including other cells Exocytosis- the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transport the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out of the cell The golgi body is responsible for packaging the cell secretions in secretory vesicles for transport out of the cell through the membrane. http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/en docytosis.gif http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/asset/t dc02_int_membraneweb/ http://www.cytochemistry.net/cell-biology/Gol8.jpg
Introduction The cytoskeleton is a network of thin tubes and filaments that crisscrosses the cytosol Maintains cell shape Anchors organelles and enzymes to specific regions of the cell Contractility and movement (amoeboid movement) Intra cellular transport tracks for vesicle and organelle movement by motor proteins In order for a cell to function properly, it must have a particular structure. The cell also must be mobile if necessary and be able to move materials over the surface of stationary cell. The cytoskeleton forms the structure of the cell. PowerPoint made by Andrew Zheng, Emmaline Stoddard, and Meghan Sardis
Parts of Eukaryotic Cytoskeleton Microfilaments- long threads of actin – Contribute to cell movement Microtubules- hollow tubes of tubulin – Maintain cell shape, anchor organelles, contribute to cell movement, track for motor proteins Intermediate Filaments- rope-like fibrous proteins – Provide structural reinforcement, anchor organelles, keep nucleus in place
Parts of Prokaryotic Cytoskeleton The cytoskeleton structures in prokaryotes and eukaryotes are different, though the functions of these structures are similar FtsZ – Forms filaments Mreb and ParM – Maintenance of cell shape Crescentin – Maintaining cell shape
Cellular Movement Cilia- short, hair-like appendages extending from the surface of a living cell – “row” the protists like thousands of oars – Short – Found in eukaryotic cells Flagella- long threadlike appendages on the surface of a living cell – Whip back and forth in a jerky fashion to propel cell – Longer than cilia – Found typically in prokaryotic cells, sometimes in eukaryotic cells
The Purpose of Nutrients in a Cell Obtaining and metabolizing nutrients is necessary in order for a cell to complete several life processes. Cells acquire nutrients and convert it to energy to move, divide, produce secretory vesicles, contract, and reproduce. Without energy, a cell wouldn’t be able to “fuel” its internal organelles and perform any of the essential functions of life.
Cell Comparisons Prokaryotes/Eukaryotes - Eukaryotes contain internal organelles that are not present in prokaryotes, such as the mitochondria, that assist in obtaining and metabolizing nutrients. Animal Cells/Plant Cells - Plants cells contain chloroplasts that are not present in animal cells. - Both contain the mitochondria that are essential in producing ATP the cell’s primary energy source. - Plant cells: Photosynthesis - Animal cells: Diffusion Emily Carrieri, Stella Hung & Sandro Conte
Structures Involved Cell Membrane - Allows specific nutrients to enter the cell from outside surroundings - Protects internal metabolism from harmful conditions outside the cell Mitochondria - Takes food (in form of sugar) and combines with oxygen to produce ATP. - ATP is the primary energy source for the cell.
Structures Involved (cont.) Chloroplast (plant cells only) - The chloroplasts contain a green pigment Chlorophyll, which absorbs energy from sunlight. - The energy converts water and carbon dioxide into sugars (like glucose) that the mitochondria can convert into ATP.
Prokaryotes - Prokaryotes obtain and metabolize nutrients differently due to the fact that they lack the internal organelles that eukaryotes have. - Prokaryotes obtain their nutrients through the process of diffusion. - Storage Granules: After the nutrients are metabolized through a series of chemical reactions in the cytoplasm, they are stored in storage granules in some form of energy (glycogen, lipids, etc.) and are used as needed.
Cells must Grow, Develop, and Reproduce Overview By Jackie Romankow, Emma Williams, Brian Zeng, and Vineet Parikh. This is the cell cycle- the repeating of set events in the life of a cell First interphase happens Then cell division Why? – This cycle happens to replace dead or dying cells, and/or to produce a new organism. http://www.cellsalive.com/cell_cycle.htm
Centrosomes and Cytoplasm http://cellsalive.com/mitosis.htm A centrosome only functions during mitosis Cytokinesis is the division of cytoplasm of cells
Nucleus This is arguably the most important organelle involved in cell reproduction and growth. Mitosis is the cycle in which the Nucleus divides
Differences in the Cycle Plant vs. Animal Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes
Proteins Synthesis The process by which cells synthesize, modify, and ship proteins to their respective destinations. Group Members: Nicki Wang, Ethan Goldring, Amelia Fruda, and Gavin Van Skiver. http://www.proteinsynthesis.org/wp- content/uploads/2013/02/protein-synthesis-ribosome.jpg
Process of Protein Synthesis 1.Proteins are assembled in the ribosomes by RNA, which act on instructions from the DNA. 2.Vesicles transport proteins to the Golgi Apparatus. 3.The Golgi Apparatus modifies proteins and ‘re- labels’ them into new vesicles. 4.Vesicles release proteins that have destinations outside the cell. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/- k0yymaOn57o/T59yTtItXYI/AAAAAAAAERY/Xc_dZTuFYrQ/s1600/MJ+2 012+howproteinsynthesisworks.jpg The process is broken into 2 steps: Transcription, then Translation.
Organelles Involved Nucleus: where the process begins (with DNA and RNA) Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: place where Ribosomes are attached in cytoplasm. Ribosomes: where the proteins are synthesized. Golgi Apparatus: where the proteins are modified and packaged into different vesicles, so they can be moved to different regions of the cell. Vesicles: the organelles that release the proteins. http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/animals /cell/anatomy.GIF
Why it is Important? Protein synthesis allows new proteins to be created, replacing dying or diseased proteins. – Proteins are important to cell function! Protein synthesis also allows DNA to have a hand in the daily function of a cell. A Helpful Animation: http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/cellstructures/en domembrane%20protein%20synthesis.swf
Any Differences? In a eukaryotic cell the process of transcription occurs in the nucleus, while translation occurs in the cytoplasm. In prokaryotic cells, both stages occur in the cytoplasm When protein synthesis occurs in a ribosome not located inside the Rough ER, the proteins produced never leave the cell. http://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/mcgo4s0/p ublic_html/t3/antisense1.gif
Storing and Digesting Nutrients in Cells Haley Frey, Jonathan Rich, Sarah Rosa Why is storing and digesting nutrients so important for cell function? Cells need nutrients for energy (ATP), cellular functions, and to create new tissues and cells. A cell can’t use food until it has been digested. Cells also need to neutralize dangerous substances.
Lysosomes vesicles that bud from the Golgi apparatus contain hydrolytic enzymes to break down substances into useful material – carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids Autophagy: they digest worn out organelles Autolysis: lysosomes in a cell breaking down that cell http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter4/lysosomes.html
Peroxisomes found in the kidney and liver cells deal with harmful substances – free radicals (oxygen ions) which are harmful detoxify alcohol and other drugs digests hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) break down fatty acids for energy
Digestion Process PLANT CELLS Organelles involved: -Large vacuole: stores digested material, act as lysosomes for the plants -Peroxisomes: convert fatty acids to sugar and assist chloroplasts What happens: material enters the cell and the peroxisomes begin to digest them. The digested material is then stored in the vacuole. Decaying organelles are broken down and reused in other places. ANIMAL CELLS Organelles involved: -Lysosomes: contain enzymes to digest bacteria and other substances -Peroxisomes: digest harmful H 2 O 2 What happens: material enters the cell and the lysosomes and peroxisomes begin to digest it. The useful material is transferred to the mitochondria to be used for energy. Decaying organelles are broken down and reused in other placed.