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Chapter 5 Skeletal System. Skeleton Greek meaning “dried up body” Axial & Appendicular Functions: o Support o Protection o Movement o Storage o Blood.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Skeletal System. Skeleton Greek meaning “dried up body” Axial & Appendicular Functions: o Support o Protection o Movement o Storage o Blood."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Skeletal System

2 Skeleton Greek meaning “dried up body” Axial & Appendicular Functions: o Support o Protection o Movement o Storage o Blood cell formation

3 Bones 206 bones Compact and spongy bone Long bones Short bones Flat bones Irregular bones

4 Long Bones Gross Anatomy Diaphysis – compact bone Periosteum – covering diaphysis Epiphyses – ends Articular cartilage – covers epiphyses Epiphyseal line – remnant of plate Yellow marrow – fat storage Red marrow – RBCs Bone markings (table 5.1)

5 Long Bones Microscopic Anatomy Osteocytes – mature bone cells Lacunae – cavities Lamellae – circles of lacunae Haversian canals – cavity with blood supply Osteon – canal and matrix rings Canaliculi – connect cells to haversian canals Perforating canals – canals at right angles

6 Bone Formation, Growth and Remodeling Ossification has two major phases o Hyaline model is covered with bone cells (osteoblasts) o Hyaline model digested away, making medullary cavity. Hyaline stays in the articular cartilages and epiphyseal plates Bone remodeling: Osteoclasts – activated by PTH to destroy bone and release calcium into the blood stream

7 Homeostatic Imbalance Rickets: o Childhood disease in which bones fail to calcify. Lack of vitamin D or of calcium. Milk, bread and others are fortified with Vit D. Sun.

8 Bone Fractures Simple fracture – bone breaks cleanly and does not penetrate skin Compound fracture – broken bone ends penetrate skin Fracture treated by reduction o Closed reduction: bone ends are put back into normal position by doctor o Open reduction: surgery is performed to secure them with pins/plates/wires

9 Open Reduction Compound Fracture

10 Fracture Healing Four events: o 1. Hematoma formed by ruptured blood vessels o 2. Break splinted by fibrocartilage callus (cartilage matrix, bony matrix and collagen fibers). “Splints” the bone, closing the gap o 3. Bony callus formed (spongy bone) o 4. Bony callus remodeled over months time

11 Axial Skeleton Skull: o Cranium and Facial Bones o Cranium bones: Frontal (forehead) Parietal (superior & lateral. Paired… form sagittal suture and coronal suture) Temporal (inferior to parietal… form squamous sutures. External auditory meatus, styloid process, zygomatic process, mastoid process, jugular foramen) Occipital (most posterior. Forms lambdoid suture. Opening called foramen magnum. Occipital condyles) Sphenoid (floor of cranial cavity. Sella turcica, foramen ovale, sphenoid sinuses) Ethmoid (roof of nasal cavity. Crista galli, cribiform plates) o Facial Bones: Maxillae (paired and fuse to form upper jaw. Palantine process, paranasal sinuses) Palantine (paired. Posterior part of hard palate. Cleft palate) Zygomatic (paired. Cheekbones) Lacrimal (paired. Medial walls of orbit) Nasal (paired. Bridge of nose) Vomer (single bone. Nasal septum) Inferior Conchae (paired. Inside nasal cavity) Mandible (single bone. Largest, strongest bone in face) o Hyoid Bone Closely related to mandible and temporal bones. Suspended midneck above larynx. Movable base for tongue and attaches neck muscles)



14 Fetal Skull

15 Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column (spine) Intervertebral discs 24 bones o 7 cervical (neck) Atlas and axis o 12 thoracic o 5 lumbar o Sacrum 5 Fused vertebrae o Coccyx 3-5 fused tiny vertebrae. “tailbone”

16 Vertebrae Body Vertebral arch Vertebral foramen Transverse processes Spinous process Superior and inferior articular processes

17 Axial Skeleton Bony Thorax o Sternum Jugular notch, sternal angle, xiphisternal joint o Ribs 12 pairs. True ribs (1 st 7), False ribs (last 5 NOT attached to sternum)

18 Appendicular Skeleton Shoulder Girdle Upper Limbs Pelvic Girdle Lower Limbs

19 Shoulder Girdle Clavicle Scapulae o Acromion o Coracoid process o Glenoid cavity

20 Bones of the Arm Humerus o Greater, lesser tubercles o Deltoid tuberosity o Radial groove o Trochlea o Capitulum Radius – lateral o Radioulnar joints o Interosseous membrane o Radial tuberosity Ulna – medial o Coronoid process o Olecranon process o Trochlear notch Carpal bones o Carpals: Scaphoid Lunate Triquertrum Pisiform Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate o Metacarpals o Phalanges (distal, proximal)

21 Greater tubercle Lesser tubercle Deltoid tuberosity Radial groove Trochlea Capitulum Distal radioulnar joint Proximal radioulnar joint Interosseous membrane Radial tuberosity Trochlear notch Olecranon process Coronoid process Ulna Radius Anterior Humerus Posterior Humerus


23 Pelvic Girdle Ilium Sacroiliac joint Iliac crest Ischium Pubis Pubic symphysis Acetabulum ilium sacroiliac joint iliac crest ischium acetabulum sacrum pubic bone Pubic symphysis

24 Lower Limbs Thigh o Femur o Greater, lesser trochanters o Intertrochanteric line/crest o Gluteal tuberosity o intercondylar notch Leg o Tibia (larger, more medial) Tibial tuberosity Medial malleolus Anterior crest o Fibula Lateral malleolus Foot o Tarsus (7 tarsal bones) Calcaneus Talus o Metatarsals o 14 phalanges



27 Joints Functionally o Synarthroses (immovable) o Amphiarthroses (slightly movable) o Diarthroses (freely movable) Structurally o Fibrous o Cartilaginous o Synovial

28 Fibrous Joints Sutures of skull Syndesmoses (tibia and fibula)

29 Cartilaginous Joints Pubic symphysis Intervertebral joints Hyaline-cartilage epiphyseal pates of growing long bones Cartilaginous joints between first ribs/sternum

30 Synovial Joints Four characteristics o Articular cartilage o Fibrous articular capsule o Joint cavity o Reinforcing ligaments o ASSOCIATED… Bursae Tendon sheath

31 Synovial Joints Based on Shape Plane Joint o Nonaxial o Intercarpal joints of wrist Hinge Joint o Uniaxial o Elbow, ankle, joints between phalanges Pivot Joint o Uniaxial o Proximal radioulnar joint Condyloid joint o “knuckle-like”, biaxial o Metacarpophalangeal joints Saddle joint o Biaxial o Carpometacarpal joints in thumb Ball-and-socket joint o Multiaxial o Shoulder, hip


33 Inflammatory Disease Bursitis Sprain Arthritis o Osteoarthritis o Rheumatoid arthritis o Gouty arthritis

34 Developmental Aspects Birth: UL ratio 1.7:1 10 yo: UL ratio 1:1 Osteoporosis

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