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Chapter 5 Skeletal System

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Skeletal System"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Skeletal System

2 Skeleton Greek meaning “dried up body” Axial & Appendicular Functions:
Support Protection Movement Storage Blood cell formation

3 Bones 206 bones Compact and spongy bone Long bones Short bones
Flat bones Irregular bones

4 Long Bones Gross Anatomy
Diaphysis – compact bone Periosteum – covering diaphysis Epiphyses – ends Articular cartilage – covers epiphyses Epiphyseal line – remnant of plate Yellow marrow – fat storage Red marrow – RBCs Bone markings (table 5.1)

5 Long Bones Microscopic Anatomy
Osteocytes – mature bone cells Lacunae – cavities Lamellae – circles of lacunae Haversian canals – cavity with blood supply Osteon – canal and matrix rings Canaliculi – connect cells to haversian canals Perforating canals – canals at right angles

6 Bone Formation, Growth and Remodeling
Ossification has two major phases Hyaline model is covered with bone cells (osteoblasts) Hyaline model digested away, making medullary cavity. Hyaline stays in the articular cartilages and epiphyseal plates Bone remodeling: Osteoclasts – activated by PTH to destroy bone and release calcium into the blood stream

7 Homeostatic Imbalance
Rickets: Childhood disease in which bones fail to calcify. Lack of vitamin D or of calcium. Milk, bread and others are fortified with Vit D. Sun.

8 Bone Fractures Simple fracture – bone breaks cleanly and does not penetrate skin Compound fracture – broken bone ends penetrate skin Fracture treated by reduction Closed reduction: bone ends are put back into normal position by doctor Open reduction: surgery is performed to secure them with pins/plates/wires

9 Compound Fracture Open Reduction

10 Fracture Healing Four events:
1. Hematoma formed by ruptured blood vessels 2. Break splinted by fibrocartilage callus (cartilage matrix, bony matrix and collagen fibers). “Splints” the bone, closing the gap 3. Bony callus formed (spongy bone) 4. Bony callus remodeled over months time

11 Axial Skeleton Skull: Cranium and Facial Bones Cranium bones:
Frontal (forehead) Parietal (superior & lateral. Paired… form sagittal suture and coronal suture) Temporal (inferior to parietal… form squamous sutures. External auditory meatus, styloid process, zygomatic process, mastoid process, jugular foramen) Occipital (most posterior. Forms lambdoid suture. Opening called foramen magnum. Occipital condyles) Sphenoid (floor of cranial cavity. Sella turcica, foramen ovale, sphenoid sinuses) Ethmoid (roof of nasal cavity. Crista galli, cribiform plates) Facial Bones: Maxillae (paired and fuse to form upper jaw. Palantine process, paranasal sinuses) Palantine (paired. Posterior part of hard palate. Cleft palate) Zygomatic (paired. Cheekbones) Lacrimal (paired. Medial walls of orbit) Nasal (paired. Bridge of nose) Vomer (single bone. Nasal septum) Inferior Conchae (paired. Inside nasal cavity) Mandible (single bone. Largest, strongest bone in face) Hyoid Bone Closely related to mandible and temporal bones. Suspended midneck above larynx. Movable base for tongue and attaches neck muscles)

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14 Fetal Skull

15 Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column (spine) Intervertebral discs 24 bones
7 cervical (neck) Atlas and axis 12 thoracic 5 lumbar Sacrum 5 Fused vertebrae Coccyx 3-5 fused tiny vertebrae. “tailbone”

16 Vertebrae Body Vertebral arch Vertebral foramen Transverse processes
Spinous process Superior and inferior articular processes

17 Axial Skeleton Bony Thorax Sternum
Jugular notch, sternal angle, xiphisternal joint Ribs 12 pairs. True ribs (1st 7), False ribs (last 5 NOT attached to sternum)

18 Appendicular Skeleton
Shoulder Girdle Upper Limbs Pelvic Girdle Lower Limbs

19 Shoulder Girdle Clavicle Scapulae Acromion Coracoid process
Glenoid cavity

20 Bones of the Arm Ulna – medial Coronoid process Humerus
Olecranon process Trochlear notch Carpal bones Carpals: Scaphoid Lunate Triquertrum Pisiform Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate Metacarpals Phalanges (distal, proximal) Humerus Greater, lesser tubercles Deltoid tuberosity Radial groove Trochlea Capitulum Radius – lateral Radioulnar joints Interosseous membrane Radial tuberosity

21 Anterior Humerus Posterior Humerus Greater tubercle Lesser tubercle
Deltoid tuberosity Radial groove Trochlea Capitulum Distal radioulnar joint Proximal radioulnar joint Interosseous membrane Radial tuberosity Trochlear notch Olecranon process Coronoid process Ulna Radius Anterior Humerus Posterior Humerus

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23 Pelvic Girdle Ilium Sacroiliac joint Iliac crest Ischium Pubis
Pubic symphysis Acetabulum sacroiliac joint iliac crest ilium sacrum pubic bone acetabulum ischium Pubic symphysis

24 Lower Limbs Thigh Leg Femur Tibia (larger, more medial)
Greater, lesser trochanters Intertrochanteric line/crest Gluteal tuberosity intercondylar notch Leg Tibia (larger, more medial) Tibial tuberosity Medial malleolus Anterior crest Fibula Lateral malleolus Foot Tarsus (7 tarsal bones) Calcaneus Talus Metatarsals 14 phalanges

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27 Joints Functionally Structurally Synarthroses (immovable)
Amphiarthroses (slightly movable) Diarthroses (freely movable) Structurally Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial

28 Fibrous Joints Sutures of skull Syndesmoses (tibia and fibula)

29 Cartilaginous Joints Pubic symphysis Intervertebral joints
Hyaline-cartilage epiphyseal pates of growing long bones Cartilaginous joints between first ribs/sternum

30 Synovial Joints Four characteristics Articular cartilage
Fibrous articular capsule Joint cavity Reinforcing ligaments ASSOCIATED… Bursae Tendon sheath

31 Synovial Joints Based on Shape
Plane Joint Nonaxial Intercarpal joints of wrist Hinge Joint Uniaxial Elbow, ankle, joints between phalanges Pivot Joint Proximal radioulnar joint Condyloid joint “knuckle-like”, biaxial Metacarpophalangeal joints Saddle joint Biaxial Carpometacarpal joints in thumb Ball-and-socket joint Multiaxial Shoulder, hip

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33 Inflammatory Disease Bursitis Sprain Arthritis Osteoarthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis Gouty arthritis

34 Developmental Aspects
Birth: UL ratio 1.7:1 10 yo: UL ratio 1:1 Osteoporosis


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