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Articulations (Joints) Martini Chapter 9 Bio 103 Feb 11, 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Articulations (Joints) Martini Chapter 9 Bio 103 Feb 11, 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Articulations (Joints) Martini Chapter 9 Bio 103 Feb 11, 2008

2 Joint Classifications 1.Functional Classification based on range of motion 2.Anatomical (structural) Classification based on material in joint

3 Structural vs. Functional Joint Classifications structural categories do have some relationship with the functional categories (structure  function)

4 Structural Joint Categories 1.Fibrous no joint cavity held together with fibrous connective tissue

5 Structural Joint Categories 1.Fibrous no joint cavity held together with fibrous connective tissue 2.Cartilaginous no joint cavity held together with cartilage

6 Structural Joint Categories 1.Fibrous no joint cavity held together with fibrous connective tissue 2.Cartilaginous no joint cavity held together with cartilage 3.Synovial has a joint cavity articular capsule and ligaments join bones

7 Functional Joint Classification

8 3 Functional Classifications 1.Synarthrosis (together + joint) –no movement –structural type: fibrous, cartilaginous, or bony fusion

9 4 Types of Synarthrotic Joints 1.Suture (sewn together) fibrous bound by dense fibrous connective tissue found only in skull

10 4 Types of Synarthrotic Joints 2.Gomphosis (bolted together) fibrous binds teeth to bony sockets (maxillary bone and mandible) fibrous connection between tooth and socket is called periodontal ligament

11 4 Types of Synarthrotic Joints 3.Synchondrosis (together + cartilage) cartilaginous rigid bridge between 2 bones –epiphyseal cartilage of long bones –Between ribs and sternum

12 4 Types of Synarthrotic Joints 4.Synostosis totally rigid fused bones (bony fusion) epiphyseal lines of mature long bones metopic suture in frontal bone (doesn’t always fuse!)

13 Craniosynostosis when skull sutures fuse prematurely

14 3 Functional Classifications 2.Amphiarthrosis (both sides + joint) –little movement –structural type: fibrous or cartilaginous

15 2 Types of Amphiarthroses 1.Syndesmosis (desmos = ligament) –bones connected by ligaments example between tibia and fibula

16 2 Types of Amphiarthroses 2.Symphysis –bones separated by a wedge or pad of fibrocartilage intervertebral discs connection between pubic bones

17 3 Functional Classifications 3.Diarthrosis (through + joint) –more movement –articular cartilage + synovial fluid + accessory structures

18 Diarthrosis (Synovial) Joints freely moveable joints catagorized by movement type typically located in appendicular skeleton, at connections of long bones The shoulder joint is the most freely moving joint in the body.

19 Synovial Joint Structure articular capsule –unites 2 bone ends

20 Synovial Joint Structure articular capsule –unites 2 bone ends –outer layer fibrous, dense irregular connective tissue that blends with the periostea of the two bones to form ligaments

21 Synovial Joint Structure articular capsule –unites 2 bone ends –outer layer fibrous, dense irregular connective tissue that blends with the periostea of the two bones to form ligaments –inner layer (synovial membrane) composed of areolar tissue and epithelial tissue

22 Synovial Joint Structure articular cartilage –like hyaline cartilage, but no perichondrium matrix more watery

23 Synovial Joint Structure synovial fluid –thin film between articular cartilage creates smooth gliding surface

24 Synovial Joint Structure synovial fluid –thin film between articular cartilage creates smooth gliding surface –similar to interstitial fluid with high concentration of proteoglycans consistency of molasses

25 Functions of Synovial fluid Lubrication –cartilage sucks up fluid like sponge and releases when compressed to reduce friction

26 Functions of Synovial fluid Lubrication –cartilage sucks up fluid like sponge and releases when compressed to reduce friction Nutrient Distribution –fluid circulates bringing nutrients and removing wastes for chondrocytes

27 Functions of Synovial fluid Lubrication –cartilage sucks up fluid like sponge and releases when compressed to reduce friction Nutrient Distribution –fluid circulates bringing nutrients and removing wastes for chondrocytes Shock absorption –lessens shock by distributing pressure evenly across articular surface

28 Synovial Joint Accessory Structures Cartilages –meniscus (crescent) aka articular disc pad of fibrocartilage that sits between 2 bones

29 Synovial Joint Accessory Structures Fat pads –covered by synovial membrane –protect articular cartilages act as packing material for joint, filling in spaces left as joint cavity changes shape

30 Synovial Joint Accessory Structures Ligaments –attach bone to bone –support and strengthen joints

31 Synovial Joint Accessory Structures Ligaments –Intrinsic (capsular) ligaments thickening of joint capsule

32 Synovial Joint Accessory Structures Ligaments –Extrinsic ligaments separate from joint capsule 1.intracapsular (inside capsule) –e.g., ACL, PCL 2.extracapsular (outside capsule) –patellar ligament

33 Sprains ligament collagen stretched/torn more likely to break bone than tear ligament

34 Synovial Joint Accessory Structures Tendons –attach to muscles around joint, but not a part of articulation –pass through/around joint and can affect joint movement

35 Synovial Joint Accessory Structures Bursae (pouch) –pockets of synovial fluid that cushion areas where tendons or ligaments rub against other tissue –synovial tendon sheaths tubular bursae that surround tendons where they cross bone

36 Bursitis inflammation of bursae causing pain during motion caused by: –overuse –pressure bunion –chemicals/infection

37 Stabilization of Joints movement beyond range causes joint damage

38 Stabilization of Joints movement beyond range causes joint damage greater range of motion = greater chance for injury

39 Stabilization of Joints movement beyond range causes joint damage greater range of motion = greater chance for injury To reduce chance of injury joints are stabilized by:

40 Stabilization of Joints movement beyond range causes joint damage greater range of motion = greater chance for injury To reduce chance of injury joints are stabilized by: 1.collagen fibers of capsule and ligaments 2.shape of articulating surfaces and menisci might prevent movement in certain directions 3.presence of other bones, muscles, fat pads around joint 4.tension in tendons encourages movement in specific direction

41 Describing Dynamic Motion 3 possible movements 1. linear (gliding) 2. angular (circumduction) 3. rotation

42 Types of Movements at Synovial Joints

43 Linear Motion (Gliding) –2 opposing surfaces slide past one another between tarsal bones between carpal bonesclavicle and sternum

44 Types of Movements at Synovial Joints Flexion/Extension –movement in anterior/posterior plane flexion reduces the angle extension increases the angle in the anatomical position, all major joints (except ankle) are at full extension. extension past the anatomical position is called hyperextension example is bending your neck backwards to look at the sky

45 Types of Movements at Synovial Joints Abduction/Adduction –angular movement in frontal plane abduction moves away from the longitudinal axis of the body adduction moving towards the longitudinal axis of the body

46 Types of Movements at Synovial Joints Circumduction –angular motion, without rotation

47 Types of Movements at Synovial Joints Rotation –Left or right rotation –Medial rotation (inward rotation) rotates toward axis –Lateral rotation (outward rotation) rotates away from axis

48 Types of Movements at Synovial Joints Rotation of the forearm –Pronation: rotates forearm, radius over ulna –Supination: forearm in anatomical position

49 Special Movements Inversion/Eversion –twisting motion of the foot that turns sole inward (inversion) or outward (eversion)

50 Special Movements Dorsiflexion/Plantar flexion –flexion at ankle joint dorsiflexion elevates sole plantar flexion elevates heel NOTE: it is acceptable to use the terms flexion and extension for these movements of the ankle.

51 Special Movements Opposition –t–thumb movement toward fingers or palm (grasping) only primates and a few other species have opposable thumbs humans can move their thumbs farther across their hand than any other primate

52 Protraction –moves anteriorly –in the horizontal plane (pushing forward) Retraction –opposite of protraction –moving anteriorly (pulling back)

53 Special Movements Elevation –moves in superior direction (up) Depression –moves in inferior direction (down) shoulder shrug

54 Special Movements Lateral Flexion –bends vertebral column from side to side

55 Synovial Joint Types Classified by: 1.Movement Type 2.Structure Type

56 Synovial Joint Classification Based on Movement

57 1.Nonaxial (Gliding) gliding movements only carpals, tarsals, sacroiliac (sacrum to ilium) between carpal bones

58 Synovial Joint Classification Based on Movement 2.Uniaxial (monoaxial) angular movement in one plane hinge joints (temporomandibular joint) pivot joints (atlas to axis and proximal radioulnar)

59 Synovial Joint Classification Based on Movement 3.Biaxial angular movement in two planes forward/backward and left/right occipital condyles to atlas

60 Synovial Joint Classification Based on Movement 4.Triaxial angular and rotational movement ball and socket (shoulder joint)

61 Synovial Joint Classification Based on Structure

62 1.Gliding (planar) 2.Pivot 3.Hinge 4.Ellipsoidal (condyloid) 5.Saddle (sellaris) 6.Ball & socket

63 Synovial Joint Classification Based on Structure Gliding (planar) Joint –Articular surfaces are essentially flat –Allow only slipping or gliding movements –nonaxial joints intercarpel, intertarsel, claviculosternal, joints

64 Synovial Joint Classification Based on Structure Hinge Joints –Cylindrical projections of one bone fits into a trough-shaped surface on another –Motion is along a single plane (uniaxial) permit flexion and extension only elbow, knee, interphalangeal joints

65 Synovial Joint Classification Based on Structure Pivot Joint –bone protrudes into a sleeve or ring, composed of bone and possibly ligaments –only uniaxial movement allowed joint between the atlas and axis proximal radioulnar joint

66 Synovial Joint Classification Based on Structure Ellipsoidal (condyloid) Joints –oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression in another –biaxial joint (motion in 2 planes) radiocarpal (wrist) joints, metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) joints

67 Synovial Joint Classification Based on Structure Saddle Joints –Similar to ellipsoidal joints but allow greater movement –articular surface has both a concave and a convex surface carpometacarpal joint of the thumb

68 Synovial Joint Classification Based on Structure Ball and Socket Joints –A spherical or hemispherical head of one bone articulates with a cuplike socket of another –Multiaxial joints permit the most freely moving synovial joints shoulder and hip joints

69 Specific Articulations 1.Intervertebral Articulations 2.Knee Joint 3.Shoulder Joint (maybe)

70 Intervertebral Articulations Synovial gliding joints –Between superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae –Flexion and rotation of vertebral column

71 Intervertebral Articulations Symphyseal joints –Vertebrae are separated by pads of fibrocartilage called intervertebral discs –Not found between C1- C2 –Not found in sacrum/coccyx where bones are fused

72 The Intervertebral Discs Anulus fibrosus: –tough outer layer that attaches disc to vertebrae Nucleus pulposus: –elastic, gelatinous core that absorbs shocks Discs account for ¼ of height and as we age, water in nucleus pulposus decreases leading to reduction in height

73 6 Intervertebral Ligaments 1.Anterior longitudinal ligament –connects anterior surface of vertebral bodies 2.Posterior longitudinal ligament –connects posterior surfaces of vertebral bodies 3.Ligamentum flavum –connects laminae 4.Interspinous ligament –connects spinous processes 5.Supraspinous ligament –connects tips of spinous processes (C 7 to sacrum) 6.Ligamentum nuchae –continues supraspinous ligament (C 7 to skull)

74 Damage to Intervertebral Discs Slipped disc –bulge in anulus fibrosus –invades vertebral canal Herniated disc –nucleus pulposus breaks through anulus fibrosus –presses on spinal cord or nerves

75 Articulation of the Vertebral Column

76 The Knee Joint

77 2 femur–tibia articulations: –1 at medial and lateral condyles –1 between patella and patellar surface of femur

78 Medial and lateral menisci fibrocartilage pads –at femur–tibia articulations to cushion and stabilize joint and give lateral support

79 7 Ligaments of the Knee Joint patellar ligament –reinforce anterior surface 2 popliteal ligaments –reinforce posterior surface anterior cruciate and posterior cruciate –ACL & PCL found inside capsule –cruciate means cross –ensure alignment of tibia and femur tibial collateral ligament –reinforce the medial surface fibular collateral ligament –reinforce the lateral surface

80 Sprains and Strains Sprains: –The ligaments reinforcing a joint are stretched or torn –Partially torn ligaments slowly repair themselves –Completely torn ligaments require prompt surgical repair Strains –The muscles or tendons are stretched or torn –Healing generally better than with a sprain, however it depends on the location of the strain with relationship of the joint

81 Mallet Finger

82 Bursitis and Tendonitis Bursitis –An inflammation of a bursa, usually caused by a blow or friction –Symptoms are pain and swelling –Treated with anti-inflammatory drugs; excessive fluid may be aspirated Tendonitis –Inflammation of tendon sheaths typically caused by overuse –Symptoms and treatment are similar to bursitis

83 Dislocation (luxation) common in acromioclavicular joint subluxation –partially dislocated

84 Rheumatism general term to describe pain/stiffness of the skeletal and/or muscular systems There are more than 100 different types of inflammatory or degenerative diseases that damage the joints –Arthritis is a rheumatism of the synovial joints

85 Osteoarthritis (OA) Most common chronic arthritis –aka “wear-and-tear” arthritis –aka degenerative joint disease (DJD) affects women more than men affects older population –as one ages, cartilage is destroyed more quickly than it is replaced –results in bone ends thicken, enlarge, form bone spurs, and restrict movement Joints most affected are the cervical and lumbar spine, fingers, knuckles, knees, and hips

86 Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease Typical onset between the ages of 40 to 50 Signs and symptoms include joint tenderness, anemia, osteoporosis, muscle atrophy, and cardiovascular problems

87 Gouty Arthritis (Gout) Deposition of uric acid crystals in joints and soft tissues, followed by an inflammation response More common in men Typically, gouty arthritis affects the joint at the base of the great toe In untreated gouty arthritis, the bone ends fuse and immobilize the joint Treatment – colchicine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and glucocorticoids

88

89 The Shoulder Joint (glenohumeral) Greatest range of motion Greatest risk of dislocation

90 The Shoulder Joint (glenohumeral) Ball and socket joint Articulation at head of humerus and glenoid cavity of scapula Glenoid labrum is a fibrocartilage that deepens the socket Articular capsule is large and loose permitting a large range of motion

91 Ligaments of the Shoulder Joint 1.Glenohumeral 2.Coracohumeral 3.Coracoacromial 4.Coracoclavicular 5.Acrominoclavicular Shoulder separation is common injury involving partial or complete dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint

92 Muscles and Tendons of the Shoulder Joint Muscle and tendons of the rotator cuff support the shoulder and limit movement: –Supraspinatus –Infraspinatus –Subscapularis –Teres minor Many bursae are present to reduce friction between large muscles/tendons and shoulder capsule


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