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Kulsoom Structure & Classification of Proteins Dr. Bibi Kulsoom 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Kulsoom Structure & Classification of Proteins Dr. Bibi Kulsoom 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kulsoom Structure & Classification of Proteins Dr. Bibi Kulsoom 1

2 Kulsoom 2 Other dry elements 14% Proteins

3 Kulsoom Proteins: Amino Acids Hydrocarbon chain Hydrolysis by digestive enzymes Protein molecule Amino acids One Amino acid structure Peptide bond

4 Kulsoom Essential amino acids 1.Arginine (partially essential) 2.Histidine 3.Isoleucine 4.Leucine 5.Lysine 6.Methinine 7.Phenylalanine 8.Threonine 9.Tryptophan 10.Valine Non-Essential amino acids 1.Alanine 2.Aspartic acid 3.Asparagine 4.Cysteine 5.Glutamic acid 6.Glutamine 7.Glycine 8.Proline 9.Serine 10.Tyrosine Proteins are Composed : of 20 Amino Acids

5 Kulsoom Classification is based on Composition Shape Function Proteins & their Classification 5

6 Kulsoom 1.Simple proteins: A protein that contains amino acids only. Examples: albumin, globulins & histones. 2.Conjugated Proteins: A protein that have some non-protein moiety in its structure along with protein part. 3.Derived proteins: Proteins derived from simple and conjugated proteins by physical or chemical treatment. Examples: peptones peptides and denatured proteins. Classification Based on Composition 6

7 Kulsoom Conjugated Proteins Nucleoproteins Glycoproteins Mucoproteins Lipoproteins Phosphoproteins Chromoproteins Metalloproteins 7

8 Kulsoom Nucleoproteins 8 Proteins examples: Histones, telomerase.

9 Kulsoom Glycoproteins 9 Proteins examples: Glycoproteins of cell membrane, Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH).

10 Kulsoom Lipoproteins 10 Proteins examples: Low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL).

11 Kulsoom Phosphoproteins Inactive Active P P 11 Proteins examples: Enzymes (protein in nature) are phosphorylated temporarily for their regulation.

12 Kulsoom Chromoproteins Cytochromes P Proteins examples: Hemoglobin, cytochromes (enzymes).

13 Kulsoom Metalloproteins 13 Proteins examples: Hemoglobin, Ceruloplasmin (protein that stores and transports copper) Ceruloplasmin

14 Kulsoom Proteins Globular Proteins Albumin Globulins Glutelins Prolamines Histones Globins Protamines Fibrous Proteins or Scleroproteins Collagens Elastins Keratins 14 Based on Shape

15 Kulsoom Globular Proteins Hemoglobin and myoglobin are examples of globular proteins. 15

16 Kulsoom Fibrous Proteins or Scleroproteins  -keratin  -keratin Collagen fiber Collagen, keratin and elastin are examples of fibrous proteins. 16

17 Kulsoom Classification based on Function 17

18 Kulsoom Proteins gives our cells shape, strength as well as enable movements. Proteins examples: keratin, collagen, elastin. Structure Examples: Hair, wool, nails, horns, hoofs, tendons, cartilage. 18 Structural Proteins

19 Kulsoom Contractile Proteins Proteins examples: Actin & myosin Location in body: Contracting fibers in muscle. 19

20 Kulsoom Storage Proteins Proteins examples: Different for different sustances. Ferritin (Stores iron in spleen) legumes and beans in plants 20 Protein examples: hemoglobin (Carries oxygen in blood) serum albumin (Carries fatty acids in blood) Transport Proteins

21 Kulsoom Proteins as Enzymes Many proteins act as biological catalysts or enzymes. Thousands of different enzymes exist in the body. Examples: catalase, amylase, trypsin, lipase. 21 Bacterium Antibody Proteins examples: Gamma globulins when a pathogen enters the body, the immune system produces antibodies against it that fight against the invader. Immunological Proteins

22 Kulsoom Proteins as Buffers Example: Plasma proteins and intracellular preoteins. 22

23 Kulsoom Maintaining Osmotic Pressure 23 Protein examples:  Albumin, globin, globulin. Protein as Hormone Hormone Examples: Insulin, glucagon, growth hormone etc.

24 Kulsoom Channels: Protein pores that run like tunnels across the lipid bilayer will allow specific materials that we need, like glucose, to slip through the membrane. Receptors: proteins that mediate the effects of hormones in side the cell. Protein Channels & Receptors 24 Cell cytoskeleton Examples: Microfilaments, intermediate filaments & microtubules.

25 Kulsoom 25 Clotting Factors Clotting proteins activate and make meshwork of fibrin to stop bleeding. Examples: Factors I, II, III, IV, V etc.

26 Kulsoom Type of protein ExampleFunction Structural proteins keratin, collagen Hair, wool, nails, horns, hoofs, tendons, cartilage Contractile proteins actin, myosin Contracting fibers in muscle Transport proteins hemoglobin serum albumin Carries oxygen in blood Carries fatty acids in blood Storage proteins ferritinStores iron in spleen Hormones insulin, glucagonRegulates use of blood sugar Immunological proteins antibodiesRid the body of foreign proteins Enzymes amylasePromotes the break down of starch to the simple sugar glucose. Toxins neurotoxinCobra venom blocker of nerve functions 26

27 Kulsoom 27


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