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Plant Evolution & Roots

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Evolution & Roots"— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Evolution & Roots
By: Adi Beal and Madi McDade

2 Importance of Plants Botany- the study of plants
Plants have a lot of diversity

3 Steps of Evolution 1st Step: Multicellular 2nd Step: Move onto Land 3rd Step: Vascular System 4th Step: Seeds 5th Step: Flowers & Fruits

4 1st Step: Multicellular
Aquatic organisms Get support from water Before multicellular Volvox Colony of individual cells that cooperate First multicellular plant Red Algae Rhodophyta

5 Volvox Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=He9FSeGRi3A

6 2nd Step: Move onto Land Mosses had no adaptations for life away from water First terrestrial plants Bryophyta Need ozone to block out UV rays which damage DNA More cellulose for structure Get water through roots

7 UV Damage Diagram

8 3rd Step: Vascular System
True roots and stems Xylem Phloem Waxing coating on leaves to conserve water Obtain CO2 through stomata, which close at night to prevent water loss

9 Stomata Diagram

10 4th Step: Seeds Dispersed by wind, water, and animals
Spore-individual cells that clump and each contain embryo, an endosperm, and seed coat Gymnosperms Seeds are not covered by a true fruit

11 Gymnosperms Activity ms.htm

12 Seed Dispersal Diagram

13 Seed Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6loGKPKDqCw

14 5th Step: Fruits & Flowers
Fruit- plant structure which results from the pollination of a flower and contains a seed Fruit may protect the seed Angiosperms- flowering plant that produce seeds enclosed in a fruit Flowers produce the reproductive part of the plant Flowers attract pollinators like bees, bats, and butterflies

15 Angiosperm Activity s.htm

16 Plant Reproduction Diagram

17 Plant Evolution Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yL1o49YGhtM

18 Plant Adaptations Waxy Cuticle Stomata Reproduction Vascular Tissues
Spores Seeds Vascular Tissues Xylem Phloem

19 Why Do Plants Adapt Activity
adaptations.htm

20 Monocot vs. Dicot Flowers
Parts in threes or multiples of threes Dicot Parts in fours or fives or multiples of fours and fives

21 Monocot vs. Dicot Leaves
Smooth often narrow shapes with parallel veins Dicot Oval or hand-like shapes with neck-like veins

22 Monocot vs. Dicot Vascular Tissue
Vascular bundles scattered through stem Dicot Vascular bundles arranged in ring around stem

23 Monocot vs. Dicot Root Pattern
Fibrous root system Dicot Taproot system

24 Monocot vs. Dicot Embryo in Seed
Embryo has one cotyledon (seed leaf) Dicot Embryo has two cotyledons (seed leaves)

25 Monocot Examples Lilies Tulips Bananas Pineapples Onions Corn Rice
Oats

26 Dicot Examples Beans Lettuce Oak Maple Roses Daises

27 Monocots vs. Dicot Video
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gI2RxzAT-ww

28 Monocot vs. Dicot Activity

29 Tissue Types Vascular tissue
Xylem- transports water to plant Phloem- transports food and minerals Apical Meristem- responsible for upward growth in plant and produces cells that will eventually specialize

30 Meristem

31 Types of Roots Primary Root- the first root that appears out of a seed
Taproot- primary root grows thicker and longer with secondary roots growing off of it Fibrous root- primary root branches off into many small roots Lateral root- extend horizontally from primary root and anchor plant securely in the soil Aerial root- root exposed to air and absorbs moisture Adventitious root- a root that grows above ground or in an odd place

32 Root Types

33 Root Structure Root Cap- hard protective layer, prevents breakage as plant pushed through soil, secretes slimy lubrication Root hairs- increase surface area of root so more water and nutrients can be absorbed, main entry point of water Epidermis- waterproof outermost layer, protection Cortex- many layers of parenchyma cells, stores starch for energy Endodermis- innermost cylinder of cortex, waterproof, regulates movement of water and minerals into vascular tissue

34 Root Structure (cont.) 6. Pericylce- outermost layer of cells of the steel, goes through cell division creating root hairs 7. Root system- constantly provides the stem and leaves with water and dissolved minerals 8. Root tip- where mitosis occurs 9. Permeable membrane-layer of the cell where water and nutrients can pass through

35 Root Structure Diagram

36 Root Growth https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eDA8rmUP5ZM

37 Root Activity stems.htm

38 Fun Facts!! Roots are the parts of plain that grow down into soil or water, anchoring it and soaking up all the water and minerals the plant needs to grow. In some plants such as beetroots, the roots are also a food store. When a seed begins to grow, its first root is called a primary root. This branches into secondary roots. Roots are protected at the end by a thimble shaped root cap as they probe through the soil. How plants live On every root there are tiny hairs that help it to take up water and minerals. Some plants, such as carrots, have a single large root, called a taproot, with just a few fine roots branching off. Some plants, such as grass, have lots of small roots, called fibrous roots, branching off in all directions. Some kinds of orchid that live on trees have ‘aerial’ roots that cling to the branches. Mistletoe has roots that penetrate its host tree. Roots are delicious when boiled or pickled. The roots of the South African wild fig tree can grow 120 m down into the ground.


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