62nd Step: Move onto LandMosses had no adaptations for life away from waterFirst terrestrial plantsBryophytaNeed ozone to block out UV rays which damage DNAMore cellulose for structureGet water through roots
145th Step: Fruits & Flowers Fruit- plant structure which results from the pollination of a flower and contains a seedFruit may protect the seedAngiosperms- flowering plant that produce seeds enclosed in a fruitFlowers produce the reproductive part of the plantFlowers attract pollinators like bees, bats, and butterflies
29Tissue Types Vascular tissue Xylem- transports water to plantPhloem- transports food and mineralsApical Meristem- responsible for upward growth in plant and produces cells that will eventually specialize
31Types of Roots Primary Root- the first root that appears out of a seed Taproot- primary root grows thicker and longer with secondary roots growing off of itFibrous root- primary root branches off into many small rootsLateral root- extend horizontally from primary root and anchor plant securely in the soilAerial root- root exposed to air and absorbs moistureAdventitious root- a root that grows above ground or in an odd place
33Root StructureRoot Cap- hard protective layer, prevents breakage as plant pushed through soil, secretes slimy lubricationRoot hairs- increase surface area of root so more water and nutrients can be absorbed, main entry point of waterEpidermis- waterproof outermost layer, protectionCortex- many layers of parenchyma cells, stores starch for energyEndodermis- innermost cylinder of cortex, waterproof, regulates movement of water and minerals into vascular tissue
34Root Structure (cont.)6. Pericylce- outermost layer of cells of the steel, goes through cell division creating root hairs7. Root system- constantly provides the stem and leaves with water and dissolved minerals8. Root tip- where mitosis occurs9. Permeable membrane-layer of the cell where water and nutrients can pass through
38Fun Facts!!Roots are the parts of plain that grow down into soil or water, anchoring it and soaking up all the water and minerals the plant needs to grow.In some plants such as beetroots, the roots are also a food store.When a seed begins to grow, its first root is called a primary root.This branches into secondary roots.Roots are protected at the end by a thimble shaped root cap as they probe through the soil.How plants live On every root there are tiny hairs that help it to take up water and minerals.Some plants, such as carrots, have a single large root, called a taproot, with just a few fine roots branching off.Some plants, such as grass, have lots of small roots, called fibrous roots, branching off in all directions.Some kinds of orchid that live on trees have ‘aerial’ roots that cling to the branches.Mistletoe has roots that penetrate its host tree.Roots are delicious when boiled or pickled. The roots of the South African wild fig tree can grow 120 m down into the ground.