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Plant Evolution & Roots By: Adi Beal and Madi McDade.

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Evolution & Roots By: Adi Beal and Madi McDade."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Evolution & Roots By: Adi Beal and Madi McDade

2 Importance of Plants  Botany- the study of plants  Plants have a lot of diversity

3 Steps of Evolution 1 st Step: Multicellular 2 nd Step: Move onto Land 3 rd Step: Vascular System 4 th Step: Seeds 5 th Step: Flowers & Fruits

4 1 st Step: Multicellular  Aquatic organisms  Get support from water  Before multicellular  Volvox  Colony of individual cells that cooperate  First multicellular plant  Red Algae  Rhodophyta

5 Volvox Video  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=He9FSeGRi3A https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=He9FSeGRi3A

6 2 nd Step: Move onto Land  Mosses had no adaptations for life away from water  First terrestrial plants  Bryophyta  Need ozone to block out UV rays which damage DNA  More cellulose for structure  Get water through roots

7 UV Damage Diagram

8 3 rd Step: Vascular System  True roots and stems  Xylem  Phloem  Waxing coating on leaves to conserve water  Obtain CO2 through stomata, which close at night to prevent water loss

9 Stomata Diagram

10 4 th Step: Seeds  Dispersed by wind, water, and animals  Spore-individual cells that clump and each contain embryo, an endosperm, and seed coat  Gymnosperms  Seeds are not covered by a true fruit

11 Gymnosperms Activity  ms.htm ms.htm

12 Seed Dispersal Diagram

13 Seed Video  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6loGKPKDqCw https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6loGKPKDqCw

14 5 th Step: Fruits & Flowers  Fruit- plant structure which results from the pollination of a flower and contains a seed  Fruit may protect the seed  Angiosperms- flowering plant that produce seeds enclosed in a fruit  Flowers produce the reproductive part of the plant  Flowers attract pollinators like bees, bats, and butterflies

15 Angiosperm Activity  s.htm s.htm

16 Plant Reproduction Diagram

17 Plant Evolution Video  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yL1o49YGhtM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yL1o49YGhtM

18 Plant Adaptations  Waxy Cuticle  Stomata  Reproduction  Spores  Seeds  Vascular Tissues  Xylem  Phloem

19 Why Do Plants Adapt Activity  adaptations.htm adaptations.htm

20 Monocot vs. Dicot Flowers Monocot  Parts in threes or multiples of threes Dicot  Parts in fours or fives or multiples of fours and fives

21 Monocot vs. Dicot Leaves Monocot  Smooth often narrow shapes with parallel veins Dicot  Oval or hand-like shapes with neck-like veins

22 Monocot vs. Dicot Vascular Tissue Monocot  Vascular bundles scattered through stem Dicot  Vascular bundles arranged in ring around stem

23 Monocot vs. Dicot Root Pattern Monocot  Fibrous root system Dicot  Taproot system

24 Monocot vs. Dicot Embryo in Seed Monocot  Embryo has one cotyledon (seed leaf) Dicot  Embryo has two cotyledons (seed leaves)

25 Monocot Examples  Lilies  Tulips  Bananas  Pineapples  Onions  Corn  Rice  Oats

26 Dicot Examples  Beans  Lettuce  Oak  Maple  Roses  Daises

27 Monocots vs. Dicot Video  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gI2RxzAT-ww https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gI2RxzAT-ww

28 Monocot vs. Dicot Activity 

29 Tissue Types 1. Vascular tissue 1. Xylem- transports water to plant 2. Phloem- transports food and minerals 2. Apical Meristem- responsible for upward growth in plant and produces cells that will eventually specialize

30 Meristem

31 Types of Roots 1. Primary Root- the first root that appears out of a seed 2. Taproot- primary root grows thicker and longer with secondary roots growing off of it 3. Fibrous root- primary root branches off into many small roots 4. Lateral root- extend horizontally from primary root and anchor plant securely in the soil 5. Aerial root- root exposed to air and absorbs moisture 6. Adventitious root- a root that grows above ground or in an odd place

32 Root Types

33 Root Structure 1. Root Cap- hard protective layer, prevents breakage as plant pushed through soil, secretes slimy lubrication 2. Root hairs- increase surface area of root so more water and nutrients can be absorbed, main entry point of water 3. Epidermis- waterproof outermost layer, protection 4. Cortex- many layers of parenchyma cells, stores starch for energy 5. Endodermis- innermost cylinder of cortex, waterproof, regulates movement of water and minerals into vascular tissue

34 Root Structure (cont.) 6. Pericylce- outermost layer of cells of the steel, goes through cell division creating root hairs 7. Root system- constantly provides the stem and leaves with water and dissolved minerals 8. Root tip- where mitosis occurs 9. Permeable membrane-layer of the cell where water and nutrients can pass through

35 Root Structure Diagram

36 Root Growth  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eDA8rmUP5ZM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eDA8rmUP5ZM

37 Root Activity  stems.htm stems.htm

38 Fun Facts!!  Roots are the parts of plain that grow down into soil or water, anchoring it and soaking up all the water and minerals the plant needs to grow.  In some plants such as beetroots, the roots are also a food store.  When a seed begins to grow, its first root is called a primary root.  This branches into secondary roots.  Roots are protected at the end by a thimble shaped root cap as they probe through the soil.  How plants live On every root there are tiny hairs that help it to take up water and minerals.  Some plants, such as carrots, have a single large root, called a taproot, with just a few fine roots branching off.  Some plants, such as grass, have lots of small roots, called fibrous roots, branching off in all directions.  Some kinds of orchid that live on trees have ‘aerial’ roots that cling to the branches.  Mistletoe has roots that penetrate its host tree.  Roots are delicious when boiled or pickled. The roots of the South African wild fig tree can grow 120 m down into the ground.


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