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 fibrous membrane rich in blood vessels that envelopes the bone, except at the articular surfaces; it contributes especially to the bone’s growth in.

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Presentation on theme: " fibrous membrane rich in blood vessels that envelopes the bone, except at the articular surfaces; it contributes especially to the bone’s growth in."— Presentation transcript:

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3  fibrous membrane rich in blood vessels that envelopes the bone, except at the articular surfaces; it contributes especially to the bone’s growth in thickness. *(articular surface= the surface of a joint at which the ends of the joint meet)

4  dense bone tissue composed of osteons, which resist pressure and shocks and protect the spongy tissue; it forms especially the diaphysis of the long bones.

5  Elementary cylindrical structure of the compact bone made up of four to 20 concentric bone plates that surround the Haversian canal.  Lengthwise central canal of the osteon. It encloses blood vessels and nerves. Osteon

6  Tissue made of bony compartments separated by cavities filled with bone marrow, blood vessels and nerves  This structure gives bones their lightness.

7  Cylindrical central cavity of the bone containing the bone marrow  Encloses lipid-rich yellow bone marrow  Soft substance contained in bone cavities,  producing blood cells;  marrow is yellow in the long bones of adults. Bone Marrow

8  Transverse canals of the compact bone enclosing blood vessels and nerves;  Connect the Haversian canals with each other and with the medullary cavity and the periosteum Blood Vessel  Channel in the bone through which the blood circulates, carrying the nutrients and mineral salts the bone requires

9  Smooth resistant elastic tissue covering the terminal part of the bone where it articulates with another bone  it facilitates movement and absorbs shocks

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11  Link bones  Sheets of strong, fibrous connective tissue  Identical to tendons in muscular system  Only difference is there function  Ligaments attach bone to bone and tendons attach muscle to bone

12  Cartilage  Smooth resistant elastic tissue covering the terminal part of the bone where it articulates with another bone  it facilitates movement and absorbs shocks  Synovial Fluid › Small membranous sacks that contain fluid and rest between bones of a joint, i.e., above coffin bone › Helps to cushion and absorb shock

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14  Fibrous  Cartilagenous  Synovial

15  Immoveable!  Ex, plates in skull

16  Partially moveable  Connected by cartilage  Ex, joints between vertebrae

17  Completely moveable  Hinge › Joint between 3 rd metacarpal and long pastern  Ball and Socket › Joint between ilium and femur (hip joint)

18 We’ll see…

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20  Premaxilla (incisive bone) › Holds alveoli for upper incisive teeth  Maxilla › Holds alveoli for molar and premolar teeth  Mandible (lower jaw) › Holds alveoli for all teeth of lower jaw

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22  Malleus ~ Hammer  Incus ~ Anvil  Stapes ~ Stirrup

23 1. Cervical vertebrae 2. Thoracic vertebrae 3. Lumbar vertebrae 4. Sacrum 5. Coccygeal/ caudal vertebrae

24  Make up the neck of the horse  1 st cervical vertebrae = Atlas  2 nd cervical vertebrae = Axis › Allows neck to flex and rotate

25  18  Characteristically have high spines  3 rd and 4 th form the withers

26  6  Characteristically long and flat

27  Made up of 6 sacral vertebrae fused together (*not mentioned in video but comes right after lumbar vertebrae and before the caudal)  Made up of coccygeal Vertebrae. (More commonly known as the Caudal Vertebrae.)

28  18 pairs of ribs  First 8 pairs connect to the sternum  Sternum ~ breast bone › Made up of 6-8 sternebrae and cartilage

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30  Scapula  Humerus  Radius  Ulna (not functional in a horse)

31  Carpus › Forms what is commonly called the knee in a horse  Metacarpus › 3 rd metacarpal, or cannon bone, is the only functional metacarpal  Splint bones – 2 nd and 4 th metacarpal › Small bones running parallel to the cannon bone on either side *** splints is a condition when a splint bone sustains a fraction

32  Technically referred to as phalanges  1 st Phalange ~ Proximal Phalanx ~ Long Pastern  2 nd Phalange ~ Middle Phalanx ~ Short Pastern  3 rd Phalange ~ Distal Phalanx ~ Coffin Bone

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35  Os Coxae ~ half of the pelvic girdle › 3 bones  Ilium  Ischium  Pubis

36  Femur  Patella ~ knee cap  Crus = Fibula + Tibia › Fibula isn’t functional; fuses along the length of the tibia

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39  We have almost the exact number of bones as horses  Horses’ forelegs are almost identical to our arms in position, the only real difference being the elongation of the bones that make up our wrist, hand and fingers in the horses’ knee, lower leg (cannon), ankle and hoof

40  The main differences between a horse’s skeleton and a human’s skeleton come from a horse being a quadraped while humans are bipeds  This changes the angle of the limbs in relation to the spine, the length of the neck, and the shape of the head  Horses’ being prey animals and humans predators also affects the skull; a horse’s orbits are laterally positioned because they are monocular, and their jaw is longer to provide for the powerful molars they use to chew their fibrous diet

41 O H MY BONES !!!!!!!!!! ……… XD

42  webster.com/human- being/anatomy/skeleton/structure-long- bone.php webster.com/human- being/anatomy/skeleton/structure-long- bone.php  bodyguide/reftext/html/skel_sys_fin.html #joints bodyguide/reftext/html/skel_sys_fin.html #joints  ts.php ts.php  ge7/page8/skeleton-horse.html ge7/page8/skeleton-horse.html


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