Presentation on theme: "Campbell and Reece, Chapter 40 p. 856 – 860"— Presentation transcript:
1Campbell and Reece, 2010. Chapter 40 p. 856 – 860 UNIT 4: ANIMAL TISSUECampbell and Reece, Chapter 40 p. 856 – 860
2WHERE DO TISSUES FIT IN THE LIVING ORGANISM? Life begins as a single cell called a zygote after fertilizationThis cell differentiates into a variety of tissues. (Group of cells with the same function)A group of tissues with the same function forms an organ.Group of organs – Organ systemGroup of organ systems - Organism
3WHAT IS TISSUE?SPECIALIZED CELL of the same type that perform a common function in the body.
4MAJOR TYPES OF ANIMAL TISSUE EPITHELIAL TISSUE: Covers or lines body cavity and forms glands.CONNECTIVE TISSUE: Binds different organs together and support the body.MUSCLE TISSUE: MovementNERVOUS TISSUE: Senses and transmits impulses
7SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL TISSUE STRUCTURESingle layer thin, large, flattened cellsCells have irregular shape and are closely packed in mosaic form.Cells are attached to a basement membrane.FUNCTIONSDiffusion of gasses can occur easily over surface.Supply friction free surface for blood flow.Protects and supports underlying tissue
8SQUAMOUS EPITELIAL TISSUE WHERE?Lining of lungs and blood vesselsIn mouth and esophagus.
9CUBOIDAL EPITHELIAL TISSUE STRUCTUTESquare cells, closely packed in a single layer.Cells attached to a basement membrane.FUNCTIONAbsorbs molecules
10CUBOIDAL EPITHELIAL CELLS WHERE?Lining of kidney tubulesLining various glands.
11COLUMNAR EPITHELIAL TISSUE STRUCTURETall elongated, column-shaped cells.Nucleus near the base of the cell.Cells are attached to a basement membrane.FUNCTIONSPlays a role in absorption of nutrients.Protects and supports underlying tissues.
12COLUMNAR EPITHELIAL TISSUE WHERE?Lining of small intestine, stomach and oviducts
13CILLIATED CULUMNAR EPITHELIAL TISSUE STRUCTUREComprises of columnar cells with cilia at their free edgesFUNCTIONSSweeps impurities towards throatImproves movement of substance through the ducts.
14CILLIATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIAL TISSUE WHERE?Lining of trachea and nostrils, bronchi and sperm ducts)
15GLANDULAR COLUMNAR EPITHELIAL TISSUE STRUCTUREConsist of cuboidal and columnar epithelial cells.Unicellular glandular cells with goblet cells scattered among non-glandular cells.FUNCTIONSProduce mucus which serves to lubricate the intestine and make movement of food easier.Keep respiratory passage moist.Secrete enzymes, hormones, sweat, wax and saliva.
16GLANDULAR COLUMNAR EPITHELIAL TISSUE WHERE?In small intestine and respirative passages.Occur in salivary glands, thyroid gland and sebaceous glands in the skin.
19LOOSE AREOLAR FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE Occurs beneath the skin and most epithelial layers connecting organs together.Filling the spaces between organs and muscles, around muscles and blood vessels
20DESCRIPTION OF AREOLAR- Loosely arranged tissueIn jelly-like matrix there are 4 types of living cells and two types of non-living cells.MacrophagesMast cellsFat cellsFibroblastsCollagen fibresElastic fibres
21FUNCTIONS OF AREOLAR-Areolar tissue binds organs or organ components together and supports structures.Allows for movement between structures.The matrix allows for diffusion of substances like gases, nutrients, hormones and wastes to and from the blood.
22Fibroblasts – secrete collagen and produce elastic fibres. Macrophages – Engulf foreign particles by means of phagocytosis to defend the body against infection.Mast cells – They secrete the matrix, release histamine during inflammation, produce heparin (anticoagulant).Fat cells – Synthesis and storage of fats.Collagen fibres strengthen the tissue.Elastic fibres – Allows for expansion and contraction.
23MACROPHAGES, PLASMA CELLS MAST CELLS AND ELASTIC FIBRES
25DENDE WHITE FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE In dermis of skin, tendonsFUNCTIONS:Attach muscle to bones
26DESCRIPTION OF DENSE WHITE- Consist of mainly white collagen non-elastic fibres.The collagen fibres are non-elastic, densely packed, arranged in parallel bundles, and has a shiny appearance.Fibroblasts are elongated cells and occur parallel in rows.Minimum amount of matrix.
27YELLOW FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE In ligamentsFUNCTIONS:Attach bone to boneHold bones of a joint in place.Restrict movement of bones and prevent dislocation during normal movement.
28DESCRIPTION OF DENSE YELLOW- Consist of white collagen fibres and a network of yellow elastic fibres.Ligaments are strong and flexible.
29ADDIPOSE TISSUE Found beneath the skin, around heart and other organs. FUNCTION:InsulationStores fat.DESCRIPTION:Large round cells filled with fat or oil.
32HYALINE CARTILAGEOccurs at the ends of bones in movable joints. Parts of the larynx.In the walls of the trachea and bronchi.In between the ribs and the sternum.On the tip of the nose
33DESCRIPTION Contains fine collagen fibres. White translucent matrix. Cartilage tissue is surrounded by a fibrous capsule called the perichondrium with blood vessels for nutrition.It consists of living cells called chondrocytes.They occur in small fluid-filled spaces called lacunae. In the lacunae the cells are arranged singular or in groups.
34FUNCTIONS Chondrocytes produce a rubber matrix called chondrin. Reduce friction at jointsAttach bones firmly to other bones.Keeps tubes open (C-shaped in trachea).Forms permanent structures (nose).Longitudinal growth of long bones.
35FIBROCARTILAGE Occurs as disks between the vertebrae. Surrounds the edges of the sockets of ball-and-socket joints.Between the pubic bones in front of the pelvic girdle.
36FUNCTIONS It serves as shock absorbers between adjacent vertebrae. It deepens sockets to make dislocation less easy.
37DESCRIPTION Contain a large number of collagen fibres. White translucent matrix.Cartilage tissue is surrounded by a fibrous capsule called the perichondrium with blood vessels for nutrition.It consists of living cells called chondrocytes.They occur in small fluid-filled spaces called lacunae. In the lacunae the cells are arranged singular or in groups.
38ELASTIC CARTILAGE In the ear lobe At the tip of the nose In the epiglottis.Septum of nose
39FUNCTIONSIt maintains the shape and flexibility of the ear lobe and tip of the nose.It strengthens and supports the ear, nose and epiglottis.
40DESCRIPTIONContain collagen fibres and a large network of elastic fibres.Translucent matrix.Cartilage tissue is surrounded by a fibrous capsule called the perichondrium with blood vessels for nutrition.It consists of living cells called chondrocytes.They occur in small fluid-filled spaces called lacunae. In the lacunae the cells are arranged singular or in groups.
42FUNCTIONS Support Protection Locomotion Red blood corpuscles and white blood cells are produced in the red bone marrow.
43DESCRIPTIONThe matrix of compact bone consists of collagen fibres together with calcium, phosphorus and magnesium.These components are arranged in circles called lamellae, around the Haversian canal, containing artery, vein and nerve.Contain bone cells called osteocytes
45BLOODPLASMA WHERE? DESCRIPTION Matrix in which the blood cells are found.FUNCTIONS:Transport various formed elements to body parts.Dispersion medium.Transports digested food.Transports cellular waste.Transports hormones.Plays a role in regulation of body temperature.Transports antibodiesDESCRIPTIONStraw color fluid consisting mainly of water with many substances in solution like nutrients, organic waste, inorganic salts and ions, plasma protein, dissolved gases, hormones, enzymes and antibodies.
46ERYTHROCYTES (RED BLOOD CELLS) FUNCTIONS:Transports oxygen in the blood from the lungs to all living cells.Transports some of the carbon dioxide from the body tissues the lungs.Play a role in the clotting of blood.Play a role in the regulating of pH of body fluids
47DESCRIPTIONSmall round biconcave disks filled with cytoplasm, but without a nucleus.Contain the red pigment hemoglobin.Hemoglobin contains 4 units, each with the protein globin and a complex iron-containing, structure called heme. The iron form a loose association with oxygen and in this way red blood cells transport oxygen and readily give it up to tissues.
48LEUCOCYTES (WHITE BLOOD CELLS) FUNCTIONS:Engulf infections by means of phagocytosis.Produce antibodies.Defense or immunity of body
50DESCRIPTION Larger cells with nuclei. Without staining they appear transparent.Irregular is shape. – there are 5 types of leucocytes based on differences in size and nuclear shape:NeutrophilsEosinophilsBasophilsMonocytes.Lymphocytes.
51BLOOD PLATELETSDESCRIPTION:Fragments of giant cells, present only in bone marrow.They are small discs without nuclei and bounded by a typical cell membrane.A characteristic feature of platelets is their tendency to stick to foreign surfaces and to each other to form clumps.FUNCTIONS;When blood vessels are damaged, platelets form a plug that seals the vessel, and injured tissues release molecules that help the clotting of blood.
55SMOOTH MUSCLE Found wide spread in body. Found in the walls of bloodvessels, digestive tract, respiratory ducts, urinary ducts and reproductive ducts.In iris of eye and form small muscles attach to hair follicles
56FUNCTIONS OF SMOOTH -Control slow involuntary movements of organs performing important life processes e.g. Contraction of stomach wall during peristalsis.Responsible for the movement of substances in internal passages e.g. Blood in blood vessels.
57DESCRIPTION OF SMOOTH - Every smooth muscle fibre is an elongated, thin cell with a thick central part and pointed ends.Every cell has a big nucleus centrally situated.This muscle is never connected to bone.Can contract for long with out causing a spasm e.g. Uterus wall during birth.
59DESCRIPTION OF CARDIAC - Contain many mitochondria, glucose and blood supply.Consist of branched cells with one or two central nuclei.Cells are rectangular and connected with muscle bridges.The ends of 2 cells are attached by intercalated disks.
65NERVOUS TISSUENervous tissue is composed of highly specialized nerve cells called neurons and supporting cells or neuroglia.The neurons, which are the basic units of communication, react to stimuli and transmit the impulses (information) form one region of the body to another.Neurons extend throughout the body and do not act alone.
66STRUCTURE OF A NEURONNeurons are usually long, large and complex in shape.It consists of a cell body and several cytoplasmic processes.Processes that transmit impulses to the cell body are dendrites and usually are multiple.The single process that transmits impulses away forms the cell body in the axon.The cell body contains a nucleus, neurofibrills, Nissl granules, neuroplasma.
67Three types of neurons according to structure: Unipolar neurons Bipolar neuronsMultipolar neurons
68Three types of neurons because of function: Sensory neuronMotor neuronInter-